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What is the medicinal value of Baobab?

People in Europe and North America are beginning to realize that Baobab Fruit Pulp is among the most nutrient-dense foods in all of creation. A few realize that the leaves are also a very rich vegetable. Many parts of the plant are also used in traditional medicine.

In traditional African Medicine, Baobab Fruit Pulp, leaves, bark, roots, seeds and oil are commonly used to treat a wide variety of ailments. Although natural medicine is a growing sector in the health care industry, many botanical remedies are not very well proven, or approved by regulatory agencies, leading to consumer skepticism. Certainly, there is also a good amount of snake oil on the market as well! Baobab as a food product is relatively new to the market, and its medicinal uses are virtually unknown outside of Africa. I happened upon a peer-reviewed scholarly document in the African Journal of Food Science, written by scientists from Burkina Faso and Denmark, that has a facinating section about Baobab’s medicinal value. I will summarize parts of it in this post, but I strongly recommend reading it by clicking this link.

Before I start, none of the information below has been reviewed by the FDA, and Atacora Essential does not sell Baobab to prevent, treat or cure any disease.

Antioxidant

Baobab Fruit Pulp is very rich in Vitamin C. Lab tests on Atacora Essential’s product indicate that it contains 460 mg per 100 g. Studies cited in the document indicate that Baobab’s Integral Antioxidant Capacity is 37X that of oranges! Antioxidants can help to eliminate free radicals that can contribute to cancer, aging, inflammation and cardio-vascular disease.

Anti-inflammatory

According to the article a dose of 800 mg/kg of aqueous extract of Baobab Fruit Pulp has a very similar anti-inflammatory effect as 15 mg/kg of phenylbutazone.

Antipyretic (Anti-Fever)

Fever in Africa is most often associated with malaria, but, of course can arise from other conditions as well. In the Atacora region of Benin, where Baobabs are plentiful, Baobab Fruit Pulp, seeds and bark are used for people with malaria to help reduce fever. It is used as a substitute for quinine as a prophylactic and to reduce malaria-related fever in parts of Africa. The reference article indicates an effect comparable to asprin.

Analgesic

Again, aqueous extract of Baobab Fruit Pulp is shown to have an analgesic (pain releiving) effect comparable to asprin, likely due to the presence of sterols, saponins and triterpenes in the pulp.

Hepatoprotective

The authors of the article cite a study that shows that the extract of Baobab Fruit Pulp had both a protective and a restorative effect for liver damage in rats. They do not cite any studies on humans.

Anti-microbial

The addition of Baobab Fruit Pulp to the fermented soy product, Tempeh, inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella, Baccilus and Streptococcus in the food product. It aided the growth of Lactic Acid bacteria, which are beneficial, and serve to preserve many fermented foods. They also indicated that the Fruit Pulp showed anti-microbial activity against E. coli.

Anti-viral

Baobab leaves, fruit pulp and seeds have been shown to act against influenza, herpes simplex and respiratory syncytial viruses. This is likely due to several bioactive compounds found occuring naturally in the plant.

Anti trypanosoma

Sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in animals are caused by trypanosoma protozoa. Infection is caused by the bite of tsetse flies. An extract of Baobab roots seriously reduces or eliminate the microbes’ motility within one hour, according to the authors’ research paper.

Anti-diarrhoea

Perhaps the most common medicinal use of Baobab Fruit Pulp in traditional African medicine is to treat diarrhoea. The fruit pulp is about 50% fiber, with nearly equal proportions of insoluble (cellulose) and soluble (mucilage) fiber. It also contains astringent tannins and citric acid, all of which may contribute to its efficacy against diarrhoea. When compared to the World Health Organization’s recommended oral rehydration solution for its effects, Baobab solution performed statistically as well. Baobab has the added advantages of a significant nutrient content, easy access and affordability in Africa.

Prebiotic

The soluble fiber in Baobab Fruit Pulp stimulates the growth of beneficial probiotic bacteria including lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in the digestive tract. This can foster a SYN-BIOTIC digestive effect. Learn more here!

Vitamin C

Vitamin C is a powerful antioxidant. It has been linked to lowering blood pressure, bolstering immunity, and less incidence of cataracts and coronary disease. A single serving of Atacora Baobab Fruit Pulp provides as much as 80% of daily value of this essential nutrient.

Antidote to poison

It appears that Baobab bark, fruit pulp and seeds are used to neutralize the effects of Strophanthus-derived poisons commonly used on arrows in Africa.

Skin Care

A decoction of Baobab roots is often used to bathe children in Africa to promote smooth skin. Baobab Seed Oil contains antioxidant Vitamins A, D & E as well as Omega 3, 6 & 9 essential fatty acids and is a soothing, rejuvenating skin care serum. Learn more here!


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Why is the Baobab a magical fruit?

Baobab is a magical fruit! The latest find in the superfood world – outdoing the amazing properties of even the goji berry – and is widely considered to be the king of all superfruits.
The baobab tree is native to Madagasgar, Australia and most famously, Africa where it is known as ‘the tree of life’. It is also referred to as dead-rat tree (from the appearance of the fruits), monkey-bread tree (the soft, dry fruit is edible), upside-down tree (the sparse branches resemble roots) and cream of tartar tree!
Baobab is rich in macronutrients, antioxidants, carotenoids, flavonoids, vitamins B2 & 3 and essential minerals. It contains twice as much calcium as milk, ten times the antioxidant level of oranges – as well as three times the vitamin C – and four times as much potassium as bananas. The seed and pulp are also excellent sources of magnesium, thiamin and phosphorous.
The baobab tree has iconic status in mythology. It has been claimed that baobab has been grown since the time of the Great Flood 4000 years ago, however, science dates them as having begun growing 1000 years ago. The bark of the tree is self regenerating and in some parts of Africa, babies are wash in stewed bark to give them strength.

Baobab is a magical fruit!

Baobab is a magical fruit!

Most parts of the tree can be used. The bark can be used to make rope and the trunk is hollow and can store thousands of gallons of water that can be extracted during drought. It also acts as a home to bats and snakes, and even humans. Famously, a district commissioner in Zambia once set up his office inside a baobab tree and a tree still standing in Western Australia was used to imprison Aboriginal convicts in the 1890s.
Baobab is a sticky powdery fruit encased in a hard outer shell. It has a taste similar to citrus and sherbert. In its native counties, baobab is used in a variety of ways, most often the seeds are roasted to make coffee and the fruit mixed with water to form lemonade or made into a jam that has a tart flavor, like lemon curd and a gritty texture like pear. The leaves can be eaten as relish or soup and the seeds used to produce edible oil which is also used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.
Baobab is not an easily edible fruit in its natural state. Along with the difficulty of shipping, this means that baobab is most often found in Europe already powdered, ready to be used as a superfood addition to smoothies and juices or as an ingredient in raw or cooked dishes.


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Baomix : the extraordinary benefits of the baobab fruit pulp

The baobab tree (Adansonia digitata L) is a member of the Bombacaceae family and a genus of eight species of tree. The baobab is widely distributed through the savannas and drier regions of Africa but it is also common in America, India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, China and Jamaica.

The generic name honours Michel Adanson, the French naturalist who described Adansonia for the first time. Digitata refers to the fingers of a hand, which the leaflets bring to mind.

Baomix production and Baobab fruit pulp health benefit

The tree is also commonly called the upside-down tree, bottle tree, and monkey-bread tree. The trees reach heights of 20 metres with a trunk 10 metres in diameter and branches 50 metres in diameter.

The baobab has long been an important source of human nutrition. Indigenous peoples traditionally use the leaves, bark, roots, fruit and seeds as foodstuffs, as well as in medicines for humans and animals.

Fruit harvesting and production process

Upon pollination by fruit bats, the tree produces large green or brownish fruits which are capsules and characteristically indehiscent (they don’t open to release fruit). The capsules contain a soft, whitish, powdery pulp and kidney-shaped seeds.

All baobab fruit used in our production comes from Senegal. The fruits are collected right in Senegal’s driest regions, under the supervision of expertly-qualified professionals. We focus our activity on abundant species of baobab, whose fruit can be collected with minimal environmental impact. Consequently, the fruits and seeds are the main parts of the plant that are collected, rather than the roots or bark of a particular species.

We use a simple, exclusively mechanical process to obtain the fruit pulp. After the fruit is harvested, the hard outer shell of the fruit is cracked open and the contents are removed. The seeds are then separated from the fibrous material and mesocarp. This is screened to remove further unwanted fibrous and flaky material, leaving a fine mesocarp powder (fruit pulp). Finally, the food grade powder is milled and packaged.

Baomix organic Baobab fruit pulp

Baomix organic Baobab fruit pulp

Vitamins and minerals

Baobab fruit is known for its high content of ascorbic acid (vitamin C); specifically, 100 g of wet pulp contains up to 300 mg of vitamin C, approximately six times more than the ascorbic acid content of one orange or lemon.

The fruit also contains other essential vitamins, such as vitamin B2 (riboflavin), vitamin B3 (niacin or PP).

In addition, the fruit contributes to the supply of other important dietary nutrients, such as minerals. 100 g of wet pulp contains about 300 mg of calcium, 3000 mg of potassium and 30 mg of phosphorus.

Serving instructions

Suggested intake — 5-15g per day. Use baobab as a perfect addition to your desserts and smoothies. It is also excellent for dipping fruit into to add a little bit of extra scrummyness.


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The Baobab, also known as ‘The Tree of Life’, is an extraordinary African tree. It can live as long as 5000 years and the trunk can reach up to 82 feet in circumference. Baobab is often called the ‘upside down tree’ as its branches look like roots.

The baobab fruit looks like a large velvety-green coconut. Inside are large seeds, coated with powder that has a tangy taste of caramel pear with a hint of grapefruit. This precious natural powder has an array of nutrients and health benefits.

The extraordinary African tree, Baobab Fruit Powder Organic

The extraordinary African tree, Baobab Fruit Powder Organic

The benefits of this extraordinary organic baobab fruit powder

Raw organic baobab fruit is highly nutritious and rich in antioxidants, amino acids, vitamins A, B1, B2, B3, B6, C, Magnesium, Calcium, Potassium, Manganese, Zinc, Phosphorus, Iron, protein and dietary fiber (soluble and insoluble). And with an ORAC value of 1,400 per gram, Baobab Fruit Powder exceeds the ORAC values of many other popular super fruits.

Ounce for ounce, the baobab fruit contains six times the Vitamin C found in oranges, three times the iron found in spinach, three times the antioxidants found in blueberries, three times the calcium found in milk, and six times the potassium of bananas. Baobab fruit also contains all 8 essential amino acids and is rich in pectins, triterpenoids beta-sitosterol, beta-amyrin palmitate, alpha-amyrin palmitate, sterols, saponins, triterpenes & ursolic acids.

The Baobab fruit is known for its high content of Vitamin C; in particular, 100 grams of pulp contain up to 300 mg of vitamin C. Vitamin C has been used to combat scurvy, a syndrome occurring in humans whose diet is deficient in fresh fruit and vegetables, and protects against free radicals, because it is the most effective antioxidant in hydrophilic compartments. Additionally it contributes to several metabolic processes including collagen biosynthesis in connective tissue, neurotransmitter support, and in the steroidal hormones synthesis. It also increases the calcium absorption and iron bio-availability, and it is related to the prevention of many degenerative diseases (cataract formation, cardiovascular risks, arteriosclerosis).

Dietary fiber

Today, dietary fiber has gained increased importance as a component of the diet, for its capability to influence multiple aspects of the digestive tract. Baobab fruit powder is very high in dietary fiber which can be associated with a reduction of the risk of cellular mutation and other problems in the digestive tract, and in particular, the rectal colon tract.

The optimal level of dietary fiber consumption has not yet been defined, but it is generally accepted that fiber is fundamental in the composition of an healthy and balanced diet. Consumption of fiber rich foods also reduces constipation and weight gain. Baobab fruit pulp powder provides soluble and insoluble fibers, with an amount of about 50 grams/100 grams of powder. The insoluble fibers are not absorbed by the intestine and are useful for relieving constipation and to create a feeling of satiety.

Other properties

The fruit also contains other essential vitamins, such are riboflavin (vitamin B2), necessary for growth and to maintain the integrity of nervous fibers, skin and eyes, as well as niacin (vitamin PP or B3) which is important for the regulation of several metabolic processes. The fruit contributes to the supply of other important dietary nutrients, including minerals and essential fatty acids. 100 grams of powder contains 293 mg of calcium, 2.31 mg of potassium, 96-118 mg of phosphorus, and α-linolenic acid (27 µg of acid per gram of product expressed in dry weight).

The Baobab fruit pulp shows interesting properties in the stimulation of the intestinal microflora growth. Studies carried out in Research Centers have shown that the hydrosoluble fraction of the fruit pulp has a stimulating effects on the proliferation of Bifidobacteria. In fact, soluble dietary fibers, like those contained in the pulp (about 25%), are known to have prebiotics effects stimulating the growth and/or the metabolic activity of beneficial organisms.

According to the International Centre for Underutilized Crops at the University of Southhampton, the baobab is ‘a fruit of the future’ because of its amazing nutritional benefits.

Some possible benefits of our Raw Organic Baobab Fruit Powder may include:

● Strong anti-oxidant with an ORAC value of 1,400 per gram

● Antibacterial & anti-fungal properties

● Source of soluble fibers with prebiotic activity

● Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic activity

● Increasing calcium absorption

● Anti-diarrhea, anti-dysentery activity

● Helping to fend off free radical damage

● Excellent source of many micro nutrients

● Natural & excipient

● Reducing constipation

● Supporting healthy cholesterol levels

● Relieving stomach aches

● Rich in triterpenoids beta-sitosterol, beta-amyrin palmitate, alpha-amyrin palmitate & ursolic acids

More information

Suggested Use: Mix 1 tablespoon with juice, yogurt or add to your favorite smoothie.

Botanical Name: Adansonia digitata L.

Other Names: Boab, boaboa, bottle tree, magic tree, cream of tartar tree, king of fruits, Senegal calabash, chemist tree, Ethiopian sour gourd, symbol of the earth, the top-down tree, baobab, sour gourd, mawuyu, upside-down tree, monkey bread tree, cream of tartar tree, the vitamin tree

Origin: Senegal – Certified Organic

Baomix strives to offer the highest quality organically grown, non-GMO, raw products available using low temperature drying techniques that preserve the vital enzymes and nutrients. Our raw Baobab Fruit Powder passes our strict quality assurance which includes testing for botanical identity, heavy metals, chemicals and microbiological contaminants. Baomix.com offers raw Baobab Fruit Powder packaged in airtight stand-up, resealable foil pouches for optimum freshness. Once opened, just push the air out of the pouch before resealing it in order to preserve maximum potency. Keep your raw Baobab Fruit Powder in a cool, dark, dry place.


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The actual mighty Baobab, the particular African Woods of Life, provides people who have many well being, utility and spiritual solutions. The actual nutrient-rich fruit pulp and seed oil have some amazing anti-aging properties for the skin.

Let’s see which are these benefits

Baobab Fresh fruit Pulp is actually full of Vitamin Chemical, a strong antioxidant. Nutritional C antioxidant is one of the few skin antioxidants that is enhanced whenever used topically along with internally. Research demonstrates vitamin C may stimulate the actual production associated with collagen and elastin, while reducing the look of creases, great lines, and even scars. The dual-action involving internal and external vitamins C may help optimize it is benefits and quicken their own visibility.

Baobab Anti-Aging Pores And Skin Care Important Fatty Acids And Also Antioxidants

Baobab Anti-Aging Pores And Skin Care Important Fatty Acids And Also Antioxidants

Additionally, the fiber content within Baobab Fruit Pulp acts as a thickening broker. Adding just a little water will make a poultice that’s a perfect skin mask!

Baobab Seedling Oil will be cold pressed and is rich in Vitamins A, M, as well as E, in addition to Omega several, {6} & 9 Fatty acids (Supplement F).

Let’s consider the acne treatment reviews benefits of these compounds.

Vitamins A:

The actual vitamin necessary for healthy skin. Nutritional A applied right to the skin has been used to treat acne and skin wrinkling and mottled pigmentation caused by chronic sunshine exposure. Topical Vitamin A has been suggested to help build collagen fibers within the particular dermis along with its much more superficial exfoliating house. This is the basis because of its use within minimizing the looks of fine wrinkle collections. (Skin and Allergy News)

Vitamin D:

One of the Vitamin D benefits is to become a robust antioxidant. Vitamins D can may play a role in preventing the premature aging of skin and injury to the skin structure. Supplement D is produced in the skin as a result of sun coverage, which could have other deleterious results, causing many people to get not enough sun to produce adequate Vitamin Deb. Topically employed Vitamin D can be absorbed by the skin and could help health supplement deficiency.

Vitamin E antioxidant:

Vitamin E antioxidant is an antioxidant. It can benefit prevent free of charge radical injury. Based on the observation that skin damage caused by the sun’s rays as well as other environmental agencies are evoked by cost-free radicals, vitamin e may be effective in preventing skin damage. It’s getting used in increasingly more skin preparations as a way to fend off this destruction.

Omega several, {6}, & 9 Efa’s (EFAs):

EFAs are natural sexual penetration enhancers due to their fluidizing influence on cell walls. The mixture of their particular physiological activities using their capability to increase move of bioactive agents through the skin produces a synergistic effect with other nutrients like the aforementioned Supplements. By means of these helpful skin impact on skin barrier function and penetration, EFAs help improve the construction, function and appearance associated with aged skin and therefore are extremely of use in anti-aging recipes.


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Being recognized as a ‘superfruit’, the Baobab fruit has become a popular add-on to certain food items deemed as healthy foods.

With the fruit’s velvety skin, you can say that Baobab feels like coconut sans the hairy fiber inside. When it is broken into two, you’ll observe the dry, powdery flesh filled with different antioxidants, calcium and Vitamin C. This pack of nutrition is responsible for it being called a superfruit and superfood – something that not even the likes of apple and orange could ever be called.

Multi-Functional Baobab Fruit as the Latest Superfood

Multi-Functional Baobab Fruit as the Latest Superfood

Why is the baobab considered as a superfood?

In terms of nutrition, Baobab fruit contains over 10 times the antioxidant level of oranges and six times more ascorbic acid (Vitamin C). It has also twice the calcium to be found in a glass of milk and contains other minerals like potassium and phosphorus, which are necessary for bones. The fruit pulp is extremely rich in dietary fiber, containing pre-biotics that stimulate good bacteria in the intestine.

Besides the nutritional facts about the fruit, the Baobab shells, which are pod-shaped husks of the fruit, are used by the nomads as dishes. They can also be used as stuff boxes or containers. The husks are used as fuel and their potash-rich ash is said to be suitable for soap-making. When powdered, it can be smoked in replacement for tobacco. The fruit pulp also provides significant uses. When mixed with milk, it can be used as a nutritious drink. It is also used for smoking fish because its harsh smell can drive away flies and other insects. Similar to the seeds and bark, the pulp also contains an antidote against the strophanthus snake.

Health-wise, the Baobab fruit is used as an herbal medicine for common illnesses. It is an intestinal regulator in the sense that it prevents gastric and colon disorders. Its high dietary fiber content also cleanses the colon and prevents constipation. The fruit is also effective in treating diarrhea, dysentery, hemoptysis and skin diseases like small pox and measles. Continued intake of Baobab juice can reduce the occurrence of osteoporosis because of its high calcium and phosphorus content. In fact, 100 grams of Baobab pulp contains more or less 293 mg of calcium, 96-118 mg of phosphorus, 2.31 mg of potassium and chunks of antioxidants which are very important in getting rid of free radicals. As a superfood, it contains thiamine and riboflavin, which enhance the development of the body organs and maintain skin integrity and the cellular integrity of the nerves. It is also rich in Vitamin A for better eyesight. Recently, it was discovered that the fruit is also rich in prebiotics and probiotics. The key role of these bacteria is in their promotion of a balance in our bodies, improvement of the immune system and reduction of inflammation. In light of this, probiotic foods such as Baobab can prevent allergies, yeast infections, adverse effects of some antibiotics and even several bowel diseases.

Baobab fruit is highly valuable due to its nutritional function. It isn’t just a source of food, but more than that, it serves as an energy booster, a raw material for other necessities and purposes and a natural medicine to treat common illnesses.


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In the last few years many natural ingredients, especially from the Amazon, have been touted for their antioxidant and cosmeceutical properties. An African natural—Baobab—also has a tremendous amount to offer the skin.

Baobab is an exotic natural that tightens and tones the skin, moisturizes and encourages skin cell regeneration. Baobab trees (Adansonia digitata) are special and distinctive features of the African savanna. The trees can live for up to 1,000 years and are some of the largest in the world. The tree survives prolonged droughts by storing up to 30,000 gallons of water in its massive, fibrous, sponge-like trunk, which can be up to 30 to 60 feet in diameter. To access this water, the Kalahari bushmen use hollow pieces of grass (much like a straw) to suck the water out. Hollowed out baobab trunks in the vicinity of villages are used for water storage. Thus, the Baobab tree is also known as the “Tree of Life”.

The Baobab Fruit … An African Treasure for Skin

The Baobab Fruit … An African Treasure for Skin

Information about the Baobab

The Baobab tree has also been called “the upside-down tree” because its weirdly shaped branches resemble roots. The fruit of the African baobab tree is particularly appealing to baboons, hence its other nickname, “monkey-bread tree”. Although the tree is not native to Egypt, the fruit was known in the herb and spice markets of Cairo as early as 2500 B.C. It was made famous in the West by Antoine de Saint-Exupéry’s French fable “The Little Prince.”2 The baobab was approved for European markets in 2008, and FDA soon followed suit. The fruit’s dry pulp is now sold as an ingredient for smoothies and cereal bars.3

The tree’s white, powdery fruit is classed as a functional food, rich in specific nutrients and phyto-chemicals, and are promoted as being able to improve health condition and/or disease prevention. The fruit is bottle or cucumber shaped and has a woody outer shell covered by velvety yellowish, sometimes greenish hairs. The fruit pulp is split into mealy agglomerates that enclose several seeds. The Baobab tree is a vital food source for many local tribes, cattle and game; the fruit contains both pulp and seeds which are eaten. The pulp can also be mixed with water and made into a drink; the seeds of the baobab tree can be eaten alone or mixed with millet and seedlings and young leaves are eaten like asparagus or are used in salads.

Its benefits on our skin

The Baobab fruit has six times as much vitamin C as an orange, 50 percent more calcium than spinach and is a plentiful source of antioxidants. Its antioxidant activity is four times that of a kiwi or apple pulp. The leaves are an excellent source of vitamin A, calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum and phosphorus, and the seeds are packed with protein. 4 Vitamins A and B1, B2, B3, B6 and dietary fibers are also present in Baobob.5 Baobab oil is a clear, golden yellow oil that with a slight nutty odor. The oil is obtained by cold pressing or Co2 extraction of the dried baobab seeds. Baobab oil contains fatty acids (omega 3-6-9), sterols, proteins, potassium, magnesium calcium, iron, zinc and amino acids. Topical application of this nourishing, antioxidant oil can help alleviate chronic dry skin and chronic bruising by improving skin elasticity and boosting epidermal softening.

Recent studies in Europe have revealed a multitude of skin benefits of Baobab. Leaf and bark extracts tighten and tone skin, while oil from the seeds moisturizes and encourages skin cell regeneration with vitamins A, D and E.6 Studies carried out in the laboratory showed doses between 400 and 800 mg/kg determine a marked anti-inflammatory effect and are able to reduce inflammation induced in the animal limb with formalin. This activity may be attributed to the presence of sterols, saponins and triterpenes in the aqueous extract. Clinically, skin care companies have found Baobab fruit and oil combats skin aging, helps improve skin firmness and strength by boosting the elastic quality of the skin, diminishes the look of facial lines, evens out skin tone, and refreshes and hydrates the skin.

Baobab has already been incorporated into several well-known skin care lines and has also been used in several French hair treatment gels and lip balms. Thus we can see that while Baobab has been discovered by some skin care companies, many more have yet to be introduced to its wonderful properties.


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Baobab powder is known for its amazing properties and its nutritious qualities. But is it really true? Let’s check it out.

Background

The baobab tree is highly distinctive in the areas of Africa where it grows. It is found in relatively dry grassland areas where its massive size stands out against the other low-lying bushes and trees. The shape of the tree is also distinctive, with broad trunks that have few branches until the top of the tree produces a wide canopy. In Zimbabwe, the baobab is called the upside-down tree because its canopy looks more like a root system. Legend has it that God turned the tree upside down because he found the taste of its fruit so disagreeable.

Baobab tree

Baobab tree

Ironically, that same fruit is attracting much interest these days. It has a very bitter, citrusy taste, but one that is growing on some people. In the past few years, baobab fruit has been touted as the next “super fruit” coming from the “tree of life”. A major impetus for marketing baobab occurred in 2008 when dried baobab fruit pulp was approved as a novel food under EU regulation. The pulp is made by removing the seeds and fibre from the fruit, with the remainder dried and powdered. In 2009, the US Food and Drug Administration recognised dried baobab fruit pulp as generally safe. This opened the regulatory door to it being used in foods and food supplements. The raw fruit itself is generally not available outside Africa.

Evidence from studies

Most studies of baobab have focused on its nutrient content, particularly that of the dried fruit pulp that is available in Europe and the US. Advertisements claim that baobab has more vitamin C than oranges and more calcium than milk. That all depends on how much you consume! Independent tests have found that both the fruit and foods made from the pulp vary considerably in their nutrient content. For example, the amount of vitamin C in fruit from different baobab trees can vary four-fold. This is due to different soil conditions, weather during growth and the quality of storage and processing.

In spite of this, baobab fruit pulp is an excellent source of vitamin C, calcium, zinc, phosphorous, iron and some other nutrients.

For example, 20g will provide 40-70 per cent of an adult’s recommended daily intake of vitamin C. The same amount of baobab pulp provides 5-10 per cent of the recommended daily intake of the minerals listed above. The bulk of the powder is composed of carbohydrates, with a small amount of protein.

The fruit pulp has also been found to have good antioxidant activity.

Problematic aspects

There are no known negative effects of baobab fruit, although this area has not been studied in controlled research.

Recommendations

The baobab fruit is highly nutritious, although very tart. Fruit juice traditionally made from the baobab is usually loaded up with sugar to make it more palatable. The dried fruit pulp is becoming increasingly available in exotic fruit drinks, shakes and food supplements. Although many claims are made that baobab has anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial or anti-diarrhoeal properties, none of these have been examined in human studies.

While interest in baobab is growing outside Africa, it will be important not to remove such nutritious foods from those who depend on it. Other exotic fruits have been marketed so heavily in the West that the food became too expensive for those living in the areas where it grows. All parts of the baobab tree are important in Africa for different purposes. At the same time, a renewable resource such as baobab fruit, appropriately managed, is an important commercial possibility for parts of Africa with few other natural resources.


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The Latin name for Baobab, Adansonia digitata, is in honour of the French botanist, Michel Adanson, who concluded that out of all the trees he had studied, the Baobab, “is probably the most useful tree in all”.

M. Adanson is himself testimony to this claim: he consumed Baobab juice twice a day, throughout his five years in Senegal and remained convinced that this maintained his fighting health. The discovery of Baobab fruits in ancient Egyptian tombs has demonstrated how prized these fruits were, however they were notoriously difficult to acquire, since the Egyptians were reliant on traders traveling the caravan route from Sudan. It seems that the commonly used European name, Baobab, originated from the Cairo merchant’s usage of the word, bu hobab, for a fruit not indigenous to Egypt.

Baobab tree

Baobab tree

The Egyptians found a niche for the Baobab Fruit Pulp in Europe where the powdered extract formed a competitive rival to the tablet terra lemnia, a sacred sealed earth, used to cure those consumed by poison. The Baobab’s famous silhouette has become legendary, generating the common name, “the upside-down tree”, to describe the unusual root-like branches which are seasonally devoid of foliage. Baobabs are found throughout Africa – mostly in the hotter, drier areas and indeed, many people’s first reaction is to marvel at their strange shapes and proportions. With their massive trunks, crooked branches and furry fruit, baobabs have adapted to a dry and hostile environment, and the secret to success may just lay in their appearance. The massive trunk has little wood fiber and can hold up to 300 liters of water, enabling it to live through long periods without rain. The trees have fruit as unique as the tree itself. It may be round or oval shaped and has a fury coating around a hard woody shell that shields a number of seeds rich in citric acid and oil, embedded in a whitish, powdery-soft and nutritious pulp, called “monkey-bread” .

Traditional Uses

The medicinal uses of the Baobab’s fruit were first officially praised by Venetian herbalist and physician Prospero Alpini, in 1592, who noted that the ancient Egyptians used it for treating fevers, dysentery and bloody wounds. However, even prior to Alpini’s writings, the fruit has a long history of safe nutritional and medicinal usage in Africa. In traditional medicine, baobab fruit pulp is used to treat fever, diarrhea, malaria, haemoptysis, as a febrifuge, painkiller and in the treatment of smallpox and measles. Cosmetic products are also made from the pulp and leaf extracts.

A cool drink is made out of the pulp which makes for a refreshing break. This lemonade type drink is consumed by both the healthy and the sick. It is also often given as a calming agent for those with a fever, but is also used to combat diarrhea, dysentery, small pox, measles and haemoptysis. Pregnant women in The Gambia use it as an important source of Calcium. In addition, the herding people in Africa used the citric and tartaric acids of the pulp as milk curdling agents.

Active Ingredients

The baobab fruit pulp is a very important nutritional supplement with interesting medicinal properties and is best-known for its high vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) content and is thus often given as a calming agent against fever. The pulp also contains high values of carbohydrates, calcium, potassium, thiamine and nicotinic acid. Most significant is the Integral Antioxidant Capacity (IAC), which is due to the presence of ascorbic, citric, tartaric, malic and succinic acids. Other essential vitamins present are riboflavin and niacin. In addition, the pulp contains 23% pectin making it an important binding and diluting ingredient. The antioxidants are essential for protection against free radicals, maintenance of metabolic processes, synthesis of steroidal hormones, connective tissues, assisting neurotransmitters and preventing degenerative diseases, as well as increasing the body’s ability to absorb calcium and iron. The pulp has proven to stimulate intestinal microflora making it a potential prebiotic ingredient. Tests have also confirmed its importance as an anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, antipyretic and analgesic agent.

Botanical name: Adansonia digitata

Common names: Baobab, Monkey Bread Tree, Kremetart tree, Cream of Tartar, Upside-down Tree

The baobab was amongst the first trees to appear on the land. Next came the slender, graceful palm tree. The baobab saw the palm tree and cried out that it wanted to be taller. Then the beautiful flame tree appeared with its red flower and the baobab was envious for flower blossoms. When the baobab saw the magnificent fig tree, it prayed for fruit as well. The gods became angry with the tree and pulled it up by its roots, then replanted it upside down to keep it quiet.

Products are derived from parts of the tree including dried leaves which are rich in carotene, calcium and mucilage. The bark and leaves are also useful in the treatment of fever and are reported to have anti-inflammatory properties. The seed is either pulped and applied externally, or as a drink in water to cure gastric, kidney and joint diseases.

Parts Used Fruit pulp

Product

Baobab 50/50 powder extract (PE) Free flowing depectinised powder Good solubility, clear in solution

Manufacturing procedure

Water extract which is spray-dried onto Maltodextrin into a fine hygroscopic powder. Contains no preservatives or colorants.

Product Specification

Plant material used       – Adansonia digitata fruct pulv sicc

Appearance     – Beige powder

Odour and Taste          – Characteristic of Adansonia digitata

Extract solvents            – Water

Country of origin          – South Africa

 

Chemical Specification

Solubility          – 0.3 g/100 ml

Moisture          – < 5% m/m

Ascorbic acid   – 200-300 mg/100g

pH       – @15% solution m/m

Thin Layer Chromatography – Compare to references run under the same conditions

Metals

Lead    – < 5 mg/kg

Cadmium         – < 0.2 mg/kg

Mercury           – < 0.1 mg/kg

Arsenic            – < 3.0 mg/kg

Calcium           – 130 mg/100g

Microbiological Specification

Total aerobic count      – < 10 000 cfu/g

Coliforms         – < 100 cfu/g

Yeast and Moulds        – < 100 cfu/g

Escherichia coli            – Absent/g

Staphylococcus aureus – Absent/25g

Salmonella       – Absent/10ml

Storage and Packaging requirements

Standard packaging     – 1 kg and 5kg

Sorage conditions       – Closed airtight container, dark, cool and dry conditions

 

Possible Applications

Can be used in product formulation to provide nutritional fortification, flavour enhancement, viscosity and texture modification and as a source of dietary fibre and nutrients. Specific applications could include:

– Soft drinks

– Natural fruit smoothies

– Fruit fillings, jams, sauces, puddings and desserts

– Snack bars, breakfast cereals, biscuits and snacks

– Health supplements, botanical extracts including antioxidants

– Various active cosmetic uses, including antioxidants for anti-aging, skin tightening, moisturizers, and hair and nail strengthening products.


[Total : 0    Moyenne : 0/5]

Baobab Dried Fruit Pulp An application for Novel Foods
Approval in the EU as a food ingredient.

1.0 Introduction

2.0 Specification of Baobab dried fruit pulp

2.1 Phytochemistry of Baobab, Adansonia digitata

2.1.1 Seeds 2.1.2 Roots 2.1.3 Leaves 2.1.4 Bark 2.1.5 Fruit

2.2 Specification of PhytoTrade’s product – Baobab Dried Fruit Pulp

2.2.1 Introduction

2.2.2 Consistency of Baobab dried fruit pulp

3.0 Effect of the production process applied to Baobab dried fruit pulp

3.1 Stability of Baobab fruit pulp

4.0 History of the organism used as the source of Baobab dried fruit pulp

4.1 PhytoTrade Africa’s Pre-Qualified Supplier (PQS) system as quality control

5.0 Anticipated Intake of Baobab Fruit Pulp and extent of use

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Smoothie Drink Products

5.3 Cereal Bar Products

5.4 Anticipated levels with regard to the medicinal effects of Baobab 5.5 Conclusions

6.0 Information from previous human exposure to Baobab dried fruit pulp or its source

6.1 Traditional Food Uses of Baobab Fruit Pulp 6.2 Medicinal uses of Baobab Fruit Pulp

6.2.1 Folklore

6.3 Scientific studies

6.3.1 Trypanocidal properties

6.3.2 Anti-oxidant properties

6.3.3 Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anti -pyretic properties

6.3.4 Rehydration Treatment 6.3.5 Anti-viral properties 6.3.6 Hepatoprotection

6.4 Conclusion

7.0 Nutritional information on Baobab dried fruit pulp

7.1 Ascorbic Acid Content 7.2 Pectin Content

7.3 Fatty Acid Content

7.4 Nutritional constituents 7.5 Vitamin B Content

7.6 Trace Elements

7.7 Heavy Metal Analysis 7.8 Amino acid content

7.9 Microbiological Content 7.10 Pesticides Residues Content

7.11 Anti-nutrients in Baobab Dried Fruit Pulp

8.0 Safety Profile and Toxicity Studies of Baobab dried fruit pulp

8.1 Introduction – Literature surveys and history of use 8.2 Skin test- Irritation

8.3 LD50 Test in rodents

8.4 Cyclopropene Fatty Acids

8.5 LC50 brine shrimp assay

8.6 Adansonin

8.7 Ochratoxin Content

8.8 Cyanide Content

8.9 Toxicity of closely related species and the botanical family 8.10 Conclusion

9.0 Allergenicity of Baobab dried fruit pulp 10.0 Appendices

11.0 References

1.0 Introduction

PhytoTrade Africa wish to place on the market in the European Union, dried Baobab Fruit Pulp derived from the fruits of Adansonia digitata for use as a nutritional food ingredient. Approval for this product is sought under the EC regulation No. 258/97 which is concerned with the introduction of novel foods and ingredients into the EU and ensures that the novel food in question is assessed for its safety prior to its introduction to the general public. The product is falling under and is also applicable under category 2 (categories of novel foods and novel food ingredients identified in Article 1 (2)(e) of Regulation (EC) No 258/97. This describes the novel food as “Foods and food ingredients consisting of or isolated from plants and food ingredients isolated from animals, except for foods and food ingredients obtained by traditional propagating and breeding practices and which have a history of safe food use”. Since the product is derived from plant material obtained from non – GM sources, the classification under category 4, “Scientific Classification of Novel Foods for the Assessment of Wholesomeness” which facilitates the nutritional and safety of the novel food, is applicable. According to Commission Recommendation 97/618/EC which provides guidance on presentation of data required for the safety assessment of novel foods, this product is classified as class 2 “Complex novel food from non –GM sources” and sub section 2.2 “the source of the novel foods which has no history of food use in the community (class 2.2)”.

Baobab Dried Fruit Pulp An application for Novel Foods

Baobab Dried Fruit Pulp An application for Novel Foods

2.0 Specification of Baobab Fruit Pulp

The Baobab tree Adansonia digitata is a member of the Bombacaceae family which consists of around 20 genera and around 180 species (Heywood, 1993) including closely related species such as Adansonia gregori and Adanosnia madagascariensis (Shukla et al., 2001). Also known as the “upside down tree”, on pollination by fruit bats, it produces large green or brownish fruits which are capsules and characteristically indehiscent. The capsules contain a soft whitish powdery pulp and reinform, kidney shaped seeds (Sidibe & Williams 2002).

The Baobab tree is found primarily in South Africa, Botswana, Namibia, Mozambique and Zimbabwe (Keith & Palgrave, 2000) but it is also common in America (Rashford, 1994), India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, China, Jamaica and Holland (Sidibe & Williams, 2002). Its taxonomic classification is as follows:

Kingdom                      Plantae

Division                        Magnoliophyta

Class                            Magnoliopsida

Order                          Malvales

Family                          Bombacaceae

Bombacaceae in L. Watson and M.J. Dallwitz (1992 onwards) The families of flowering plants: descriptions.

 

2.1 Phytochemistry of Baobab, Adansonia digitata

The literature has reported the isolation of a number of compounds from Adansonia digitata. These compounds have been found in a various parts of the plant including the seeds, roots, leaves, bark, and the fruits.

2.1.1 Seeds

JP Bianchi et al (1982) reported the extraction of several class of chemicals from the unsaponfiable matter the seeds of two species Adansonia, A. grandieri and A. suarezensis. The major components were 4-demethylsterols (23-42%), tocopherols (10-37%), and hydrocarbons (15-17%). In both species, sitosterol (81-88%) was the most predominant 4-demethylsterol, and gamma-tocopherol (68-98%) was the major compound in the tocopherol group. In the hydrocarbon fraction, squalene (40-75%) was the major component.

Gray et al (1986) reported the isolation of O-acetylethanolamine from the seeds of A. digitata. The dansyl derivative was isolated and used to identify the molecular structure. The O-acetylethanolamine is believed to have anti-inflammatory properties. Fatty acids have also been isolated from the seeds, including the identification of cyclopropenoid fatty acids (CPFA’s). These compounds are more fully discussed in section 8.4.)

2.1.2 Roots

Kumar et al (1987) reported the isolation of a new flavonol from the roots of A. digitata. This flavonol glycoside was identified as fisetin-7-O-alpha­rhamnopyranoside. Y N Shukla et al (2001) reported in a review that 3,7-dihydroxy­flava-4-one-5-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-4)-beta-D-glucopyranoside and also quercitin-7-O-beta-D-xylopyranoside had also been isolated from the roots.

2.1.3 Leaves

Garrett C Smith et al (1 996) extracted a series of vitamin A precursors from the leaves of A.digitata. Alpha carotene was found at 1.01mg/100g, beta-carotene was found at 5.92mg/100g, and cryptoxanthin was found at 0.81mg/100g of leaves.

2.1.4 Bark

A review by Y N Shukla et al (2001) reported that friedelin, lupeol, baurenol, and betulinic acid had all been isolated from the bark of A. digitata. Tuani et al (1997) found several classes of compounds including flavonoids, glycosides, and tannins, but did not mention specific compounds.

2.1.5 Fruit

Al-Qawari et al (2003), states that the triterpenoids beta-sitosterol, beta-amyrin palmitate, alpha-amyrin palmitate, and ursolic acids have been found in the fruit.

A report by Airan and Desai (1954) highlighted the presence of organic acids in the fruit pulp. These included citric, tartaric, malic, succinic, and ascorbic acid. Nour et al (1980) confirmed the observations of Airan and Desai when they determined that the pulp contained ascorbic acid, tartaric acid, mainly water soluble pectins, and the elements of iron and calcium.

 

2.2 Specification of PhytoTrade’s product – Baobab Dried Fruit Pulp

2.2.1 Introduction

A number of analyses were conducted on PhytoTrade’s Baobab dried fruit pulp to establish a compositional profile of the product. Other analyses were used to support the safety of the product, in terms of potential toxic components; to indicate stability of the product and also for potential contamination by pesticides, microbes, etc. The analysis were conducted by Herbal Sciences International Ltd, either “in house” or by using external laboratories were necessary. Where available, accredited methods have been used and the methodology is provided and the accreditation included in the appendices. Where possible and relevant, each analysis has been conducted in duplicate to demonstrate consistency of the results. These analyses were conducted on different batches of the fruit pulp as outlined below. The source of each batch and any blending requirements are described in detail in appendix 2 (confidential).

Baobab dried fruit pulp – samples from each of the three batches analysed were obtained from different regions and labeled throughout this application in the following way:

Batch / Region 1 – (Labelled as H.S.I.300/3/1)
Batch / Region 2 – (Labelled as H.S.I.300/3/2)
Batch / Region 3 – (Labelled as H.S.I.300/3/3)

* When each batch was analysed in duplicate, these were written up in the application with the designation A or B. E. g., duplicate analysis of H. S.I.300/3/1 is labelled as H.S.I.300/3/1/A and H. S.I.300/3/1/B

Region 3 is PhytoTrade’s main supplier with sources of Baobab dried fruit pulp from region 1 and 2, being included in the application. This is to show the variation of allowable limits in terms of analysis PhytoTrade would like to include for complying with novel foods approval for this product.

PhytoTrade Africa is also collaborating with other companies in order to offer baobab fruit in different product formats to industry. Because of the pectin content solutions can have undesirable viscosity and cloudiness, and can limit product applications. One product format is a depectinised extract powder. This is manufactured using standard industry processing technologies. Processing steps include (i) mixing baobab fruit pulp powder with water (ii) incubating with standard industry enzymes typically used in fruit clarification and processing (iii) separation using flotation and membrane filtration (iv) drying and concentration using standard practices including vacuum.

Since the composition of these products is similar to Baobab fruit pulp itself, we would like the above products to be included in the approval of this novel food application.

The following analysis were undertaken to provide compositional data on each sample and are described in the following section.

2.2.2 Consistency of Baobab dried fruit pulp

The table below presents the analytical data pertinent to describing the composition of the three PhytoTrade Baobab dried fruit pulp samples and their consistency within the parameters chosen.

Table I
Comparative analytical data on PhytoTrade’s Baobab dried fruit pulp samples

Component

H.S.I
300/3/1/

A

H.S.I
300/3/1/

B

H.S.I
300/3/2/

A

H.S.I
300/3/2/

B

H.S.I
300/3/3/

A

H.S.I
300/3/3/

B

Moisture (loss on
drying) (g/100g)

11.1

11.2

12.4

12.5

13.6

13.7

Protein (g/100g)

3.24

3.15

2.83

2.81

2.04

2.03

Fat (g/100g)

0.5

0.4

0.6

0.7

0.4

0.5

Ash (g/100g)

6.6

6.4

5.7

5.7

5.5

5.5

Total carbohydrate
(g/100g)

78.6

78.9

78.5

78.3

78.5

78.3

Total dietary fibre
(g/100g)

45.8

46.4

53.9

53.7

51.4

52.2

Available
carbohydrate
(g/100g)

32.8

32.5

24.6

24.6

27.1

26.1

Energy (kcal/100g)

149

146

115

116

120

117

Energy (kJ/100g)

631

620

488

492

510

496

Total sugars (as
glucose) (g/100g)

25.3

24.3

17.0

16.9

21.2

20.9

Sodium (mg/100g)

7.74

7.42

7.92

12.2

8.64

8.83

Saturated fats
(g/100g)

0.22

0.20

0.26

0.24

0.21

0.25

Monounsaturated
fats (g/100g)

0.14

0.10

0.21

0.23

0.13

0.16

Polyunsaturated
fats (g/100g)

0.12

0.08

0.10

0.20

0.04

0.07

Vitamin B 1 (HCl)
(mg/100g)

0.11

0.09

0.08

0.08

0.05

0.06

Vitamin B2
(mg/100g)

0.02

0.02

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.02

 

Despite the regional differences and the age of the samples, there are some consistent features that can be gleaned from the data. Moisture content varies by 2% between samples and total ash by 1%. The total fat content of these samples differs by only 0.3g, and the saturated fat content varies by no more than 0.06 g between samples. The total carbohydrate content of the fruit pulp for all samples, ranges between 78.3 to 78.9g, whilst the total sugar content ranges from 16.9 to 25.3g. Total dietary fibre content is high, ranging from 45 to nearly 54%. Vitamin B 1 content shows some variation, but there is very little variation with the vitamin B2 content, 0.01 to 0.03 mg/g.

A thin layer chromatographic fingerprint of the PhytoTrade baobab dried fruit pulp samples was also undertaken (see appendix 3 for details and methodology). Here, it was successfully demonstrated that sterols are present in all three samples (Rf = 0.58) by running against a standard, (3-sitosterol (Rf = 0.58) at the same time. TLC did not however, separate the individual sterols: campesterol, stigamsterol, isofucasterol, and avenasterol. All of these are reported to be present in Adansonia digitata (Gaydou et al, 1982). The tlc fingerprint produced showed consistency throughout all the samples analysed.

 

3.0 Effect of the production process applied to Baobab dried fruit pulp

PhytoTrade Africa’s business focuses on the commercial development of exotic fruits and medicinal plants that are wild harvested in a sustainable manner from non­cultivated plants growing wild in selected areas of Southern Africa PhytoTrade focuses on species that are abundant and that can be collected with minimal environmental impact. Consequently, the fruits and/or seeds are the main parts of the plant that are collected rather than the roots or the bark of a particular species.

With respect to the Baobab tree, PhytoTrade have focused on the fruits of this plant rather than the leaves, roots and stem bark and the collection of the fruit and its processing are described below.

PhytoTrade Africa use a simple process to obtain the fruit pulp. The fruits are collected from the trees, and the hard shells are cracked open and the pulp is separated from the seeds and shell. This is milled, separated into course and fine lots (particle size 3-600µ) and then bagged. During the processing method, the moisture content falls from an already low value to a resulting material which is around 10 – 13% when packaged.

Product preparation:

The Baobab fruit has a hard shell (epicarp) with a velvety covering. Inside the shell is the seed (pericarp and seed) which are hard and dark coloured, and is surrounded by dry, light / cream coloured fruit pulp (mesocarp) forming lumps. Dry, slightly darker fibrous material is also contained within the fruit.

The fruit pulp / mesocarp is what is consumed traditionally, and is fundamentally equivalent to the product PhytoTrade Africa wished to place on the EU market.

The production process to attain the proposed product specification is simple and exclusively mechanical.

The processing steps are:

  • Harvesting of fruits
  • Cracking the hard outer shell and removing the content
  • Mechanical separation of the seed, fibrous material and mesocarp
    • Mesh / screen separation of unwanted fibrous and flaky material from fine, clean mesocarp powder (the baobab fruit pulp powder)
    • Storage in clean food-grade packaging

Batch to batch consistency – To minimise fluctuations of the fruit pulp from different areas, within a particular region, the pulp is blended to give a consistent batch/product as described in appendix 2. Specification sheets for each of the different batches are included in the appendices (see appendix 4).

 

3.1 Stability of Baobab fruit pulp

To demonstrate the stability of the product PhytoTrade analysed samples from the same regions that have been stored for over a year and compared these to recently harvested material from the same areas. The results and conclusions from this are detailed in appendix 5.

 

4.0 History of the organism used as the source of Baobab dried fruit pulp

In this section the harvesting methods used to obtain the raw material are discussed and also includes methods of transport and storage conditions. These are achieved by using Phytotrade’s quality control system as described below:

 

4.1 PhytoTrade Africa’s Pre-Qualified Supplier (PQS) system as quality control (1) Raw material supplies – volumes and quality

Members are assessed to ensure they can supply the correct volumes and quality to the selected market. PQS of baobab fruit pulp are required to have training in quality control programmes for rural harvesters. This includes a system of grading to eliminate any inappropriate quality such as material harvested too early, or too late in the season, for the supply chain. Rural packaging, storage, and transportation must meet agreed standards. The standards are based on accepted raw material supply practices for industries such as out-sourced production of chilly and peppers for paprika product for the EU market.

Traceability

An internal control system capable of meeting requirements of “organic” certification is required. Individual harvesters are trained and registered, and comprise supply groups with co-ordinators or “chairs” of producer groups acting as contact and control points. Material is traceable from storage warehouse back to individual harvesters through practices such as supplying numbered food-grade plastic bags and other audit trail methodologies common in food and pharmaceutical raw material supply chains. The traceability systems are required to be formal and documented for inspection purposes.

(2)   Collation practices

Warehousing and bulking-up facilities are inspected for cleanliness and appropriateness for supply into food chains. Pest control systems are required. Minimum and maximum temperatures, moisture and other relevant conditions are inspected.

(3)   Processing

The suitability of processing methods and equipment is inspected and required to conform to approved mechanical processes. Approved equipment includes de-hullers, hammer mills, shakers, and sifters / mesh screens.

All processing steps must accommodate traceability requirements through batch numbers for each production run.

(4)   Packaging

Only food grade packing materials are approved for use, and are monitored in the PQS system.

(5)   Shipping

Only producers with efficient International export and shipping facilities are approved by the PQS system.

(6)   Handling orders and logistics

PQS members are required to understand all elements of handling orders and other commercial trade logistics.

(7)   Conformity to PhytoTrade Africa’s Fair Trade and Environmental Charters

All members sign PhytoTrade Africa’s Fair Trade and Environmental charters. PQS members are required to demonstrate fundamental adherence with the principles and practices of the charters.

(8)   Exclusivity arrangements with selected partners and clients

PQS members are only allowed to supply export material to PhytoTrade Africa­approved partners and clients. Approved partners and clients are selected on the basis of, amongst other factors, their quality control systems. For example, they would be required to be registered HACCP suppliers with systems required to sell into the EU market.

Baobab’s traditional role in the diet at locations outside the community is discussed in the history of use section in 6.0. Further details of the use of Baobab fruit pulp outside of the community are described in appendix 7a along with further details on the abundance of the material in Southern Africa.

 

5.0 Anticipated Intake of Baobab dried fruit pulp and extent of use

5.1 Introduction

PhytoTrade plan to use Baobab dried fruit pulp in such products as smoothies, cereal bars and other health food products. The anticipated intake of the pulp in such products will be around 5- 10% depending on the particular food product in question. These levels a have been determined by a number of experiments that are outlined below. Further details are available in appendix 6.

Leatherhead Food International carried out preliminary work to determine the potential applications of the pulp as an ingredient in food and drink products. This is a summary of their findings on the use of baobab fruit pulp in smoothies and fruit bars.

 

5.2 Smoothie Drink Products

To identify the optimum level for smoothie drinks using baobab dried fruit pulp, a series of baobab fruit pulp solutions were prepared. An evaluation of these smoothie products showed that the drinks with 6% and 8% by weight fruit pulp were by the far best.

 

5.3 Cereal Bar Products

A series of fruit bar formulations containing different quantities of baobab dried fruit pulp were prepared. These were produced by a dry mix process.

An assessment of the cereal bars demonstrated that 5-10% by weight fruit pulp produced acceptable fruit bars with good flavour and a chewy texture.

 

5.4 Anticipated levels with regard to the medicinal effects of Baobab

Since PhytoTrade seek to use Baobab dried fruit pulp as a food ingredient, literature searches were performed to explore the range of medicinal properties of the fruit and what levels of ingestion were required in order to have the described medicinal effects. These are described more fully in section 6.2. The conclusions reached with regard to the known medicinal effects of Baobab dried fruit pulp, are that in the anticipated levels of use, no medicinal effects are expected to be observed.

 

5.5 Conclusions

PhytoTrade plan to incorporate approximately 6-10g of baobab dried fruit pulp in 100g smoothies and 10-15g in a 100g fruit bar and similar food products. The Leatherhead Food results clearly demonstrate that these values are acceptable for the incorporation of baobab pulp at these levels. Further uses include a de-pectinated

Baobab fruit pulp and the use of the fruit pulp in other food products such as biscuits, confectionary, and other related food products.

 

6.0 Information from previous human exposure to Baobab dried fruit pulp or its source

This section details the history of use of Baobab in the EU and in other parts of the world. The possible ant nutritional and potential toxic factors are discussed more fully in section 8.0

 

6.1 Traditional Food Uses of Baobab Fruit Pulp

The pulp of the Baobab fruit is reported to have numerous uses by the indigenous people of Africa. (Lewicki, 1974). Bosch et al (2004) reported that the fruit had a soft, white, edible and nutritious flesh called monkey bread. This fruit is eaten as a sweet and used to make ice-cream (Bosch et al, 2004).

The Hausi-speaking farmers and Fulani cattle owners, who live in the savannah region of Northern Nigeria, produce an emulsion from the fruit pulp by removing the seeds and fibres, kneading in cold water, and straining this emulsion through a sieve (Nicol 1957). The resulting white or whitish yellow fluid is used to dilute thick guinea corn to a thin gruel, a traditional morning or midday meal (Bosch et al, 2004), Nicol, 1957). This emulsion was also used by the Fulanis to adulterate their milk (Bosch et 2004, Erosmele et al, 1991, Nicol, 1957).

Several authors have reported that the fruit pulp is used to make a refreshing drink (Bosch et al 2004, Carr 1955, Nicol, 1957). In Sudan, this drink is called ‘gubdi’ and made from cold water to preserve the vitamins (Bosch et al, 2004). Amongst the Hausi farmers, the baobab fruit juice mixture is a popular drink and is available during the hot times of the year (Nicol, 1957).

The baobab fruit pulp is reported to be used in cooking. Amongst some African people the baobab is sometimes called the ‘cream of tartar’ tree because the acidic nature of the fruit (Carr, 1955). The dried pulp can be used in baking as alternative for cream of tartar (Bosch et al, 2004).

Finally, Diop et al (1988) reported that the pulp was rich in calcium and this was the main reason that the baobab was largely consumed by pregnant women and children in Senegal. A study of pregnant women in Gambia, by Prentice et al (1993), reported that eating the fruit pulp in season (December to April) without the seeds once a day, contributed 30mg/day calcium to the diet.

Further surveys on the use of Baobab in Africa and any local reported toxic effects have also been undertaken by PhytoTrade themselves:

A questionnaire was administered to people attending the PhytoTrade Africa AGM on 30th May 2006. The objective was to try and establish from people with direct knowledge of the uses of Baobab fruit the following (i) what format the fruit is consumed in (ii) who consumes the products (iii) the frequency of the consumption (iv) the quantities in which it is consumed and (v) whether there are any known toxicity / safety concerns. It is acknowledged that the procedure and questionnaire do not constitute a highly scientific and authoritative study on the subject. However, the responses confirm what is learned from the literature. This includes:

  • Baobab fruit is widely consumed in a variety of formats wherever the resource occurs
  • The old, young, healthy, infirm and pregnant women are known to consume Baobab fruit

• The product is considered healthy

  • There are no known toxicity / safety concerns with the consumption of Baobab fruit products. The only response that could be cause for concern seems to be when the product is consumed in excess, it can encourage diarrhoea. This is common with many fruits. The above questionnaires are detailed in the appendices (appendix 7a edited questionnaire on history and safe use of Baobab fruit).

A further questionnaire, with similar objectives, was administered to a different audience. This audience comprised of professional institutions and authoritative sources of independent of PhytoTrade Africa. The results of the process are to found in the appendices (appendix 7a_toxicity and use questionnaire of Baobab fruit).

PhytoTrade also undertook a detailed literature search on the history of use of Baobab fruit pulp. Numerous references were found demonstrating its widespread use not only in Africa, but other continents such as Asia and Australia. The details of this are presented in appendix 7b, but the main findings are summarized here:

Further details of historical use

  • Baobab fruit, also known as ‘pain de singe’ is sold in areas of Paris where the local population is made up of West and Central African immigrants.
  • Most of the baobab fruit appears to come via a trade route with Senegal and possibly Mali.
  • The Ivory Coast is also believed to another source of importation.

Use in Europe

  • The Baobab fruit company is a major supplier in Europe of Baobab fruit (www.baobabfruitco.com).
  • Amongst the uses of Baobab fruit in Europe is as an ingredient in the pills known as ‘terra lemnia sigilatta.
  • Baobab fruit supplements have been endorsed by Italian cyclists, a Formula one driver, and AC Milan football players.

Use in Africa

• Responding to a food frequency questionnaire in Ouassala, Western Mali,

Households reported that Baobab fruit was consumed on a regular basis.

  • Countless references to its use as refreshing drink and a nutritional food.
  • Used in baptismal ceremonies as an ingredient for traditional dishes.
    • Pregnant women and children singled out as people most likely to consume Baobab fruit.

Use in the Rest of the World

  • In Canada, Baobab is listed as a substance in cosmetics and care products regulated under the Foods and Drug act between January 1, 1987 and September 13, 2001.
  • In India, Adansonia digitata is widespread and similarly consumed by Indians.
  • In Australia, Adansonia gregorii, a closely related species to A.digitata was considered by the Australian Food Standards agency as ‘not novel’ and given food status in March 2005, presumably indicating its safe us in the Australian community References and further details can be found in appendix 7b.

 

6.2 Medicinal uses of Baobab Fruit Pulp 6.2.1 Folklore

All parts of the baobab tree are believed to have medicinal properties according to traditional folklore (Haerdi 1964, Kerhero 1974, Kokwaro 1976, Watt and Breyer­Brandwijk 1962).

Of particular interest is the use of baobab fruit and seeds to treat dysentery as reported by both Kerhero and Watt/Breyer-Brandwijk. This is covered by the work of Tal-Dia et al (see rehydration 6.3.4), where dried fruit pulp was used as an alternative to produce a rehydration fluid in children affected by acute diarrhea. The main advantage here was the fact that the baobab fruit pulp powder was available in the local area and did not have to airlifted into the region by aid agencies such as WHO.

Watt/Breyer-Brandwijk also report that baobab has febrifuge properties but do not offer any data on the amount of fruit consumed to treat this condition. Ferbrifuge is another word for anti-pyresis, and will be discussed later (see 6.3.3 Anti­inflammatory, analgesic, and anti-pyretic properties) However, whilst Baobab fruit pulp may lower elevated body temperature, normal body temperature is not affected. (Ramadan et al, 1994).

 

6.3 Scientific studies

In this section various scientific research work that has been undertaken on Baobab is reviewed. Where applicable it is demonstrated that at the level of intended use, Baobab dried fruit pulp is not expected to display any medicinal effects.

6.3.1 Trypanocidal properties

Atawodi et al (2003) compared the trypanocidal effects of Adansonia digitata with the commercial drug DIMANAL in vitro. The results demonstrated that the root extract showed no activity with the equivalent of 10g of dried root material, and with 20g of dried root material, there was a small effect, but this was 2 1/2 times weaker than

DIMINAL at the same concentration. However, since the root of Adansonia and not fruit pulp was tested, these effects anti-trypanicidal are not expected to be observed in PhytoTrades dried Baobab fruit product.

6.3.2 Anti-oxidant properties

Manfredni et al (2002) examined the anti-oxidant properties of the fruit pulp from Adansonia digitata and compared this with several other fruits including orange, strawberry, kiwi, and a standard, grape seed extract.

The results demonstrated that Adansonia digitata fruit pulp had similar in vitro anti­oxidant properties to the standard grape seed extract (oligomeric proanthocyanidin) and over 100 times the anti-oxidant activity of oranges.

6.3.3 Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anti -pyretic properties

Ramadan et al (1994) demonstrated that the water extract of the fruit pulp of Adansonia digitata had similar anti-inflammatory properties to phenylbutazone in rats (see section 8.3 for more details).

Extrapolating these results in a 70kg human would give a comparable dosage of phenylbutazone as 1.05g and baobab pulp as 28g. However, the effective dose of phenylbutazone in humans is 300mg (Bird et al, 1983) and this is approximately 2/3 less than the 1.05g figure extrapolated above. Therefore, PhytoTrade’s Baobab pulp should produce effects at 1/3 of 28, which is approximately 9g.

Taking into account the concentration of the fruit pulp by Ramadan and the water content of the PhytoTrade product as approximately 13% by weight, this produces a value of 12 to 18g of baobab fruit pulp that would potential be needed to observe any anti-inflammatory effects in humans and this is at a much higher level than PhytoTrade plan to use in various food products.

In the same paper, the analgesic effect of baobab fruit pulp was compared to aspirin. The 400mg/kg fruit pulp extract showed a slight analgesic effect. Extrapolating this to a 70kg human gives a comparable dosage of aspirin as 3.5g and dried baobab fruit pulp as 28g. However, the effective dose of aspirin is 325mg (BAYER website page) and this is 1/10 of the extrapolated value. Therefore the baobab pulp could produce effects at 2.8g. However, taking into account the concentration of the fruit pulp by Ramadan and the water content of the PhytoTrade product as 13% by weight provides a theoretical value of around 3.8 to 4.2g of baobab fruit pulp that would need to be ingested to observe any effects. However this is only a theoretical extrapolation and with respect to the in vivo analgesic effect, one cannot conclude that this analgesia will be observed in humans at the estimated levels, due to differences in both absorption and metabolism kinetics of rodents and man.

The antipyretic effect of the fruit pulp extract in the same paper (Ramadan et al, 1994) was also compared to aspirin in rats. The results showed a marked anti-pyretic effect at both 400mg/kg and 800 mg/kg concentration levels of the extract that was similar to aspirin. However, since anti-pyresis lowers elevated body temperature and does not lower normal body temperature (Avery Complete Guide to Medicines, 2001) these effects are not expected to effect rodents or humans who have normal body temperatures.

6.3.4 Rehydration Treatment

Tal-Dia et al (1997) compared the efficacy of a local solution made from the fruit of the baobab against the WHO standard solution for treatment of dehydration as a result of acute diarrhea. The “pain de singe” as this baobab solution is known locally, is made up in 1 litre of water with 5 sugar cubes and 14 spoons of powdered baobab fruit. This is approximately equivalent to 36.4g of dried Baobab fruit powder.

Although the WHO solution was superior, there was no statistical difference between these two solutions. No medicinal claims were made about the baobab fruit pulp in treating the causes of the acute diarrhea. The solution was simply used to re-hydrate the patients being treated.

6.3.5 Anti-viral properties

Hudson et al (2000a) demonstrated the antibiotic and antiviral properties of both Adansonia root and leaf extracts against a range of viruses and bacteria. Hudson et al (2000b) were able to show that both root and leaf extracts were effective viricidal agents against herpes at levels <62.5 ug/ml in vitro. Hussain et al (1991) had previously confirmed the antibiotic potential of Adansonia root extracts against completely different strains of bacteria. As can be seen all these anti-viral and anti­bacterial effects were found in extracts of Adansonia leaves and root, but not the fruit pulp.

6.3.6 Hepatoprotection

Al-Qawari et al (2003) has examined the hepatoprotective effects of Baobab fruit pulp in rats exposed to carbon tetrachloride. Here, the fruit pulp and seeds were soaked in cold water for 24 hours and filtered. This filtrate was collected and freeze dried.

Table II

Hepatoprotective effects of Baobab: Dose, route and length of treatment

Treatment

Dose, route and length of
treatment

Saline

1ml saline orally for 5 days

Extract

1 mg/kg orally 15 days

Carbon tetrachloride in saline

0.5ml/kg iv + 1ml saline for 5
days

Carbon tetrachloride + extract

1 mg/kg extract orally 1 day,
then extract + 0.5ml/kg carbon
tetrachloride iv for 5 days,
followed by extract for 15 days

 

Several different enzyme markers were used to measure liver damage. ALT (alanine transferase), AST (aspartate transferase), and ALP (alkaline phosphatase) are indicators of hepatic disease. Alb (albumin) is used to indicate severity of the disease.
Table III

Hepatoprotective effects of Baobab: Activities and markers

Treatment

ALT

AST

ALP

ALB

Saline

48.43

+/-

1.03

103.1

+/-

3.2

137.3

+/-

1.1

1.88

+/-

0.01

Extract

45.78

+/-

1.19

110.4

+/-

2.6

135.9

+/-

1.5

1.99

+/-

0.01

Carbon
tetrachloride in
saline

85.60

+/-

1.01

297.4

+/-

1.6

287.4

+/-

1.6

1.31

+/-

0.03

Carbon
tetrachloride +
extract

50.31

+/-1.98

126.6

+/-

1.8

149.5

+/-

1.8

1.80

+/-

0.03

 

These results clearly demonstrate a potential hepatoprotective effect for baobab fruit pulp provided the extract is given before CCl4 induced liver damage is evident. Extrapolating these results to a human weighing 70kg would provide a value of around 70mg for any effects to be observed. Ingestion of Baobab fruit pulp at the levels in used in various food products could therefore potentially have hepatoprotective effects, although it is not clear how relevant these potential effects are when extrapolating from rats into humans.

 

6.4 Conclusion

Numerous medicinal effects and ethnic uses of Baobab fruit pulp have been discussed in the literature. However, the data from these reports do not appear to support any medicinal effects occurring when the fruit pulp is consumed at the levels PhytoTrade plan to use. These are 6-10g in a smoothie of 10-15g in a fruit bar and other similar food products. From the above information, and detailed literature searches on the safety of Baobab fruit (See appendix 8) no adverse long or short term health concerns have been reported with using specifically, dried Baobab fruit pulp. Potential toxic factors are however discussed in the safety section of this application section (see section 8).

 

7.0 Nutritional information on Baobab dried fruit pulp

The fruit pulp of Baobab has a range of nutritional benefits including among others high ascorbic acid content, high pectin content, linoleic acid, and several B vitamins. These are discussed in detail below:

 

7.1 Ascorbic Acid Content

The ascorbic acid content of baobab fruit pulp has been compared with oranges by
Manfredini et al (2002), and shown to be at least at least three times higher (150-499
mg/100g vs 46mg/100g). The current EC RDA value is given as 60mg/day and so 10g

of fruit pulp would provide at least 25% the recommended daily amount of ascorbic acid.

Table IV
Analysis results of vitamin C content in PhytoTrade’s Baobab fruit pulp samples

Sample

Vitamin C content (mg/100g)

H.S.I 300/3/1/A

158

H.S.I 300/3/1 /B

163

H.S.I 300/3/2/A

93

H.S.I 300/3/2/B

82.6

H.S.I 300/3/3/A

74.1

H.S.I 300/3/3/B

76.2

 

Duplicate analysis of the three PhytoTrade baobab dried fruit pulp samples, produced a range of vitamin C content from 74 to 163 mg/100g of fruit pulp (see appendix 9) for more details and the methodology used). These values fall in the lower range of those figures quoted by Manfredini et al (2002), but are still higher those found in oranges. From the figures in table IV, PhytoTrade’s product contains 1.6 to 3.5 times the ascorbic acid levels of oranges.

 

7.2 Pectin Content

The dried fruit pulp contains a high level of pectins; indeed the value has been found to be as high as 56% for water soluble pectin content by weight (Sanghi 1978 and Nour et al 1980). These indigestible but soluble fibers are thought to be an important component of our diet.

Table V
Analysis results of pectin content in PhytoTrade Baobab Fruit Pulp samples

Sample                                                                                                                                               Pectin (g/100g fruit pulp)

H.S.I 300/3/1

H.S.I 300/3/2

23.4

33.8

H.S.I 300/3/3

30.0

Duplicate analysis of the three PhytoTrade baobab dried fruit pulp samples (see Table V above), found pectin levels in the range of 23.4 to 33.8% by weight (see appendix 10 for more details and the methodology used), which is similar to previous published reports described above. Although not as high as the figures quoted by Sanghi (1978) and Nour et al (1980) compared to oranges, PhytoTrade’s baobab fruit pulp still has over 9 to 14 times more soluble fibre than for example, Florida oranges (4.4g fibre/185g fruit; nutritiondata.com).

 

7.3 Fatty Acid Content

Linoleic acid is an omega 6 fatty acid and is an essential fatty acid and natural sources of this fatty acid include sunflower oil and safflower oil. In safflower oil, linoleic acid constitutes 75% of the oil. Compared to oranges where no linoleic acid is detected (nutritiondata.com figures – Florida orange) there is 2.3mg/100g of oil in baobab fruit pulp (Glew et al, 1997). Linoleic acid is the precursor of gamma linolenic acid which is also an omega 6 polyunsaturated fatty acid. Levels of this fatty acid are of the order 15mg/100g fruit pulp (Glew et al, 1997).

PhytoTrade’s Baobab dried fruit pulp was analysed to assess the levels of these compounds in their product:

Table VI
Analysis results of Fatty Acid content in PhytoTrade Baobab dried fruit pulp samples

Fatty Acid H.S.I 300/3/1/A (% total fatty acid) H.S.I 300/3/1/B (% total fatty acid) H.S.I 300/3/2/A (% total fatty acid) H.S.I 300/3/2/B (% total fatty acid) H.S.I 300/3/3/A (% total fatty acid) H.S.I 300/3/3/B (% total fatty acid)
Alpha- linolenic acid 20.1 17.5 7.6 8.1 10.4 11.4
Linoleic acid 13.3 13.5 19.9 20.4 18.5 20.0
Oleic acid 19.7 20.6 31.0 31.0 24.9 24.7

 

Table VI is a summary of the fatty acid profile of duplicate samples from the batches of PhytoTrade Baobab dried fruit pulp. The full range of acids analysed for are included in appendix 11. The range of alpha linolenic acid content is 7.6 to 20.1 % of total fatty acids and the range of linoleic acid is much smaller, 13.3 to 20.4 % of total fatty acids. Despite the variation between the individual fatty acids in the samples, the overall percentage of essential fatty acid content, i.e. linolenic acid + linoleic acid + oleic acid, is between 51% (H.S.I 300/3/1/B) to just under 60% (H.S.I 300/3/2/B) of the total content.

In PhytoTrade products, linoleic acid content was found to 13.3 to 20.4% by weight. This is significantly higher than the figures quoted by Glew et al (1997) who stated that there baobab samples contained just 2.3% by weight. There is no obvious answer as to why there is such a large variation, although Glew et al (1 997) reported that the boron trifluoride/methanol method was used produce their fatty acid derivatives, whereas in the analysis performed on PhytoTrade’s product, sodium methoxide/methanol was used.

The omega n-3 fatty acid precursor, alpha linolenic acid is also present in high amounts, as is the omega n-9 fatty acid precursor, oleic acid. This suggests that dried Baobab fruit pulp provides an excellent source of these essential fatty acids.

 

7.4 Nutritional constituents

As described earlier, PhytoTrade’s Baobab dried fruit pulp also contains a number of common nutritional components as shown in table VII below.

Table VII
Analysis results of the main nutritional components found in PhytoTrade’s Baobab dried fruit pulp
samples

H.S.I
300/3/1/

A

H.S.I
300/3/1/

B

H.S.I
300/3/2/

A

H.S.I
300/3/2/

B

H.S.I
300/3/3/

A

H.S.I
300/3/3/

B

Moisture (loss on
drying) (g/100g)

11.1

11.2

12.4

12.5

13.6

13.7

Protein (g/100g)

3.24

3.15

2.83

2.81

2.04

2.03

Fat (g/100g)

0.5

0.4

0.6

0.7

0.4

0.5

Ash (g/100g)

6.6

6.4

5.7

5.7

5.5

5.5

Total carbohydrate
(g/100g)

78.6

78.9

78.5

78.3

78.5

78.3

Total dietary fibre
(g/100g)

45.8

46.4

53.9

53.7

51.4

52.2

Available
carbohydrate
(g/100g)

32.8

32.5

24.6

24.6

27.1

26.1

Energy (kcal/100g)

149

146

115

116

120

117

Energy (kJ/100g)

631

620

488

492

510

496

Total sugars (as
glucose) (g/100g)

25.3

24.3

17.0

16.9

21.2

20.9

Sodium (mg/100g)

7.74

7.42

7.92

12.2

8.64

8.83

Saturated fats
(g/100g)

0.22

0.20

0.26

0.24

0.21

0.25

Monounsaturated
fats (g/100g)

0.14

0.10

0.21

0.23

0.13

0.16

Polyunsaturated
fats (g/100g)

0.12

0.08

0.10

0.20

0.04

0.07

 

The variation of these components has been described earlier in this application (see consistency of Baobab dried fruit pulp in section 2.2). Full details and methodology can be found in appendix 12.

 

7.5 Vitamin B Content

A range of B vitamins are also present in the fruit pulp including thiamine (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2), niacin (vitamin B3), and pyridoxine (vitamin B6). Values are presented below per 100g of fruit.

Table VIII
Comparison of B vitamin content in Baobab fruit from various sources

B Vitamins

Baobab fruit pulp
(Baobab Fruit Co.)

(mg)

Florida oranges
(nutritiondata.com

)
(mg)

EC RDA values
(mg)

Thiamine(B1)

0.038

0.12

1.40

Riboflavin(B2)

0.06

0.06

1.60

Niacin (B3)

2.16

0.38

18

Pyridoxine (B6)

2.13

0.38

2

 

PhytoTrade’s samples compared favourably with the literature values as can be seen from the following table:

Table VIIIa
Analysis of Vitamin B levels in PhytoTrade’s Baobab dried fruit samples

A comparison of the PhytoTrade analysis results (table VIIIa) with the those quoted by the Baobab fruit company (see table VIII) shows that all the PhytoTrade samples have higher vitamin B 1 contents but lower vitamin B2 content (see appendix 12).

 

7.6 Trace Elements

A comparison of the data for PhytoTrade’s product shows that phosphorous and calcium levels are in broad agreement with the figures of Glew et al (1997), whilst being higher compared to Kalenga Saka et al (1994). Magnesium levels for the PhytoTrade product are 15 to 40% lower than either of fruit pulps examined by Kalenga Saka et al (1994) and Glew et al (1997). There are no values for the potassium levels from the Glew et al (1997) paper; however, the PhytoTrade fruit pulp has 15 to 30% lower potassium than the Kalenga Saka et al (1994) sample. The levels of iron are comparable with Kalenga Saka et al (1994) producing a median figure of 65 mg/kg. However, the iron levels are much higher than those detected by Glew et al (1997).

Vitamin B 1 (HCl)
(mg/100g)

0.11

0.09

0.08

0.08

0.05

0.06

Vitamin B2
(mg/100g)

0.02

0.02

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.02

H.S.I

300/3/1/A

H.S.I

300/3/1/B

H.S.I

300/3/2/A

H.S.I

300/3/2/B

H.S.I

300/3/3/A

H.S.I

300/3/3/B

There are also lower levels of sodium in PhytoTrade’s product compared to both the other samples, nearly 40% lower than the sample of Glew at al (1997) and other 6 times lower than the sample of Kalenga Saka et al (1 994)

Table IX
Comparison of Trace Metal Analysis Results with data from Kalenga Saka et al (1994) and Glew et al
(1997)

Trace elements

Data from Kalenga
Saka et al (1994)
(mg/kg)

Data from Glew et
al (1997)
(mg/kg)

Herbal Sciences
International ltd
analysis data
(mg/kg)

P

450

733

561-733

Ca

1156

3410

2570-3700

Mg

2090

2090

1260-1790

K

28364

20100-23900

Na

188

54.6

7-31

Fe

58

17

39.5-91.3

 

As can be seen from the above table, the variation in phosphorous and potassium levels is relatively small. The same is also true for the copper and zinc levels (see appendix 13). Sodium levels are of the order 7 to 12 mg/kg, apart from one very high reading of 31 mg/kg in sample H.S.I. 300/3/1. The remaining elements, calcium, manganese, iron and magnesium show some variation in content. H.S.I. 300/3/1 has the highest magnesium and manganese levels, H.S.I. 300/3/2 has the highest calcium levels, and H.S.I. 300/3/3 has the highest iron levels (see appendix 13 for more details and the methodology used).

 

7.7 Heavy Metal Analysis

PhytoTrade’s product was analysed for four main heavy metals: Mercury, Lead, Cadmium and Arsenic and the analytical results were compared with the EU regulation standards for content of heavy metals in foodstuffs. In UK law, arsenic in foodstuffs is set at 1mg/kg (Arsenic in Food Law 1959, as amended). Clearly, all the PhytoTrade samples show levels of arsenic below this standard. Cadmium is regulated by EU Law under EC/466/2001 where the level of this heavy metal is set at 0.05 mg/kg wet weight. Once again, the levels are well below this safety standard. Mercury levels are governed by EU law under the regulations EC/466/2001 and recently amended as EC/78/2005. These levels are set at the lowest level of 0.5mg/kg wet weight. All fruit samples are below this standard. Lead levels in food are also governed by EC/466/2001, but this was recently amended with SANCO/15/2004 rev 1. The maximum permitted level for lead is 0.2 mg/kg in dried vine fruit, such as sultanas, raisins and currants. There does not appear to be a level specifically set for fresh or other dried fruits. The maximum 0.2 mg/kg level for lead is currently under review as detailed in SANCO/15/2004 rev 1 whilst more data is collected.

Table X
Analysis Data of Heavy Metals Content in PhytoTrade’s Baobab dried fruit samples

sample

Arsenic
(mg/kg)

Cadmium
(mg/kg)

Lead
(mg/kg)

Mercury
(mg/kg)

H.S.I
300/3/1/A

< 0.10

< 0.010

0.28

< 0.004

H. S.I
300/3/1/B

< 0.10

< 0.010

0.36

< 0.004

H. S.I
300/3/2/A

0.26

0.010

0.19

< 0.004

H.S.I
300/3/1/B

0.28

0.010

0.13

<0.004

H. S.I
300/3/3/A

< 0.10

< 0.010

0.09

< 0.004

H. S.I
300/3/3/B

< 0.10

< 0.010

0.08

<0.004

 

The full details including the methodology are to be found in appendix 14.

 

7.8 Amino acid content

PhytoTrade’s samples were analysed (see appendix 15) for a range of common amino acids as portrayed in table VIII below:

Table XI
Analysis of amino acid composition in PhytoTrade’s Baobab dried fruit samples

Amino acid
(total)

H.S.I
300/3/1/A

H.S.I
300/3/1/B

H.S.I
300/3/2/A

H.S.I
300/3/2/B

H.S.I
300/3/3/A

H.S.I
300/3/3/B

Tryptophan
(g/100g)

0.05

0.05

0.04

0.04

0.03

0.03

Aspartic acid
(g/100g)

0.34

0.34

0.26

0.27

0.2

0.2

Serine
(g/100g)

0.34

0.34

0.27

0.33

0.23

0.28

Glutamic acid
(g/100g)

0.37

0.39

0.36

0.38

0.29

0.29

glycine(g/100
g)

0.18

0.19

0.16

0.17

0.13

0.14

Histidine
(g/100g)

0.07

0.07

0.06

0.07

0.06

0.07

Arginine
(g/100g)

0.13

0.13

0.13

0.13

0.1

0.1

 

26

Amino acid
(total)

H.S.I
300/3/1/A

H.S.I
300/3/1/B

H.S.I
300/3/2/A

H.S.I
300/3/2/B

H.S.I
300/3/3/A

H.S.I
300/3/3/B

Threonine
(g/100g)

0.17

0.18

0.14

0.16

0.12

0.13

Alanine
(g/100g)

0.19

0.19

0.16

0.17

0.13

0.14

Proline
(g/100g)

0.22

0.25

0.2

0.21

0.17

0.16

Cystine
(g/100g)

0.1

0.09

0.07

0.08

0.05

0.05

Tyrosine
(g/100g)

0.11

0.11

0.08

0.08

0.07

0.08

Valine
(g/100g)

0.14

0.15

0.11

0.11

0.09

0.1

Methionine
(g/100g)

0.04

0.04

0.03

0.04

0.02

0.03

Lysine
(g/100g)

0.16

0.17

0.12

0.12

0.1

0.1

Iso-leucine
(g/100g)

0.1

0.12

0.08

0.08

0.07

0.07

Leucine
(g/100g)

0.18

0.19

0.16

0.16

0.13

0.14

Phenylalanine
(g/100g)

0.16

0.17

0.15

0.15

0.12

0.12

 

Despite the variation in age of the batches and the different geographical harvesting areas of the PhytoTrade Baobab dried fruit pulp samples, the amino acid analysis produced consistent results. The only notable exceptions were with aspartic acid and glutamic acid content where the variation across all samples was 0.2 to 0.34 g/100g and 0.29-0.39 g/100g of Baobab dried fruit pulp respectively. See appendix 17 for more details of the methodology used and the analytical results.

 

7.9 Microbiological Content

All three PhytoTrade samples were screened for a range of microbiological contaminants (see table XII below):

Table XII
Averaged values of PhytoTrade’s Microbiological Analysis Results

Microbiological
test

H.S.I 300/3/1

H.S.I 300/3/2

H.S.I 300/3/3

Total viable count
(cfu/g)

3.77 x 103

250

3.20 x 104

Coliforms
(presumptive)
(cfu/g)

< 10

< 10

< 10

E.coli (presumptive)
(cfu/g)

< 10

< 10

< 10

Staphylococcus
aureus
(cfu/g)

< 20

< 20

< 20

Faecal streptococci
(cfu/g)

< 20

< 20

< 20

Yeasts
(cfu/g)

< 20

< 20

< 20

Moulds
(cfu/g)

3.49 x 103

570

1.19 x 104

Salmonella sp.
(/25g)

Not detected

Not detected

Not detected

 

All samples from the three batches of PhytoTrade Baobab dried fruit pulp showed low levels of Coliforms (presumptive), E.coli (presumptive), Staphylococcus aureus, Faecal streptococci, and also the Yeasts, and Salmonella sp. were within acceptable safety limits ( E.coli and Salmonella levels governed by EC/2073/2005). Total viable count levels for all three samples are within the safety limit of < 105 cfu’s for dried fruit (Working Group Document, Communicable Diseases and Public Health 3 pp163-167 [2000]). Mould levels were also detected at relatively low levels. The methodology and details of the results can be found in appendix 16.

 

7.10 Pesticides Residues Content

All three baobab batches were subjected to multi-residue screen for pesticide content. The samples from the three Baobab dried fruit pulp batches were mixed together into one sample and this produced the following results (see table XIII below):

Table XIII
Results of PhytoTrade’s Baobab Fruit Pulp Multi-Residue Pesticide Screen

Class of pesticide

Residue detected (mg/kg)

organophosphorous

<

0.05 mg/kg

organochlorine

<

0.02 mg/kg

organonitrogen

<

0.05 mg/kg

dicarboximides

<

0.05 mg/kg

strobilurin

<

0.05 mg/kg

triazine

<

0.05 mg/kg

pyrethoids

<

0.05 mg/kg

 

The multi-residue screen results have been resolved into the main classes of pesticides as shown above. For all classes of pesticides, the results were below the detection levels of this screen and within the guidelines laid down by The Pesticides Regulations 2006 (Statutory Instrument 2006 no.985).

The PhytoTrade Baobab fruit is wild harvested, so no pesticides are expected to found (see appendix 17 for more details and the methodology used). These results are in agreement with previous data on other species that PhytoTrade, “wild harvest” and which also failed to contain any pesticide residues within the limits specified.

 

7.11 Anti-nutrients in Baobab Dried Fruit Pulp

Liener (1980) reports that there are four main classes of anti-nutrients in foodstuffs. These are protein inhibitors, glycosides, phenols, and a miscellaneous class which includes anti-vitamins, anti-enzymes, and toxic fatty acids.

The analysis of the PhytoTrade Baobab dried fruit pulp samples has specifically looked for the presence of four such anti-nutrients. Cyanide analysis of the fruit pulp involved examining the aqueous extract and an hydrolysis extract to determine whether any cyanogenic glycosides or free cyanide were present. No cyanide was detected at the limit < 5 mg/kg (see appendix 21 determination of cyanide content in Baobab dried fruit for more details)

All the PhytoTrade Baobab dried fruit pulp samples were tested for alkaloid content by comparison with known alkaloid standards. Thin layer chromatography analysis revealed no alkaloids present at the detection limit of 10 µg/g of fruit pulp (for more details see the safety section of the application).

Finally, the PhytoTrade Baobab dried fruit pulp samples were tested for the presence of potentially toxic fatty acids. Erucic acid has been shown to have a variety of health impacts in studies, and foods containing high levels of this fatty acid are considered unfit for consumption. The EC limit for erucic acid in foods has a statutory limit of < 5% total content in oil (The Erucic Acid in Food Regulations, 1977).

The fatty acid analysis of all three samples showed levels below the detection limit of < 0.10% (see appendix 11-determination of fatty acids in Baobab dried fruit pulp by gas chromatography).

Cyclopropene fatty acids were also analysed for. These are known to be present in Baobab seed oil and can display toxic effects in animal models fed a diet, very high in these cyclopropene fatty acids (Bezard et al, 1993a, Bezard et al, 1993b, Gaydou et al, 1995, Bezard et al, 1996). This is discussed more fully in section 8.4.The PhytoTrade Baobab dried fruit pulp samples showed a maximum level of 0.26 mg/g of these compounds, well below the limit expected to show any toxic effects to humans – see appendix 18 for more details of the analysis.

In conclusion, several classes of anti-nutrients were tested for in PhytoTrade Baobab dried fruit pulp samples and all were found at very low levels.

 

8.0 Safety Profile and Toxicity Studies of Baobab dried fruit pulp

The following information is provided on Baobab dried fruit pulp to support its safe consumption in the community.

 

8.1 Introduction – Literature surveys and history of use

Baobab is widely consumed in many parts of Africa and this has been detailed in section 6.0. Also PhytoTrade have conducted extensive literature searches on any adverse effects or any potential toxicity reports of the pulp – see appendices 7a and 8. No mention was found with regard to Baobab fruit pulp in these searches, supporting the safe history of use of this product.

The following studies are also included to support the safety and lack of toxicity of Baobab dried fruit pulp in the amounts intended for use.

 

8.2 Skin test- Irritation

To determine whether baobab fruit pulp (from a different source from Phytotrade’s product) would produce any irritant effects, Marzatico (2001), exposed 25 volunteers to a 10% dilution of the fruit pulp solution using a modified Draize test.

The modified Draize test involved subjecting the human volunteers to a continuous induction period with patch exchange 3 times a week until a total of 10 patches had been applied. The patches were reapplied to the same site, and only if moderate inflammation had developed, the next patch was moved to an adjacent skin site. The human volunteers were challenged on naive skin two weeks later with a 72 h patch test of a non-irritating concentration of the compound.

The results demonstrated that baobab fruit pulp was non-irritant.

 

8.3 LD50 Test in rodents

Ramadan et al (1994) carried out LD50 studies in rodents to determine the acute toxicity of baobab fruit pulp (which was from a different source from Phytotrade’s product). An aqueous extract was produced from freeze dried pulp that had previously been extracted with distilled water (80g filtered freeze dried product from 110g of fruit pulp). Increasing amounts of the aqueous extract were administered to rodents via intraperitoneal administration until 50% of the sample group had died. The results produced an LD50 value in rodents of 8000mg/kg. If this value is extrapolated to a 70kg human this would provide an LD50 value of 560g. However, as we have previously mentioned, PhytoTrade’s Baobab dried fruit pulp has not been concentrated through extraction and also contains around 13% water by weight. This means that the predicted LD50 value for PhytoTrade’s product would be around 1/3 to 1/2 of this value; giving an extrapolated LD50 value of around 746 to 840g. Since the anticipated intake of PhytoTrade’s Baobab fruit pulp is around 15 g/day, this is well below the predicted LD50 value of 840g.

8.4 Cyclopropene Fatty Acids

Cyclopropene fatty acids, such as malvalic acid and sterculic acid (see diagram below), are found in the seed oil of baobab, however, there are no reports of these chemicals being present in the fruit pulp itself. There have been several studies on the effect of these compounds both in vitro in rat liver microsomes and in vivo in rats (Bezard et al, 1993a, Bezard et al, 1993b, Gaydou et al, 1995, Bezard et al, 1996). All rats were fed various diets that included 10% weight oil, of which the cyclopropenoid fatty acid content was 13.7%.

Malvalic acid (8,9-methylene-8-heptadececenoic acid)

Sterculic acid (9,10-methylene-9-octadecenoic acid)

All these studies reported effects that inhibited the fatty acid biosynthetic pathways, specifically affecting the desaturation pathways of lipids. This resulted in decreased membrane quality, decreased eicosanoid biosynthesis (e.g. arachidonic acid), dysfunction of adrenals resulting in decreased biosynthesis of corticosteroids, and decreased liver P450 enzyme activity.

There have been no adverse health reports in humans (Aitzetmuller, 1996), and this is believed to be due to the fact that indigenous people heat the oil during cooking. This is known to decrease the levels of cyclopropene fatty acids to very low levels. PhytoTrade’s Baobab Fruit Pulp was analysed for the detection of CPFA’s using GC­MS and comparison to known cyclopropene fatty acids. The exact methodology is in appendix 18 but the main results are reported below in table XIV:

Table XIV
Analysis of PhytoTrade’s dried Baobab fruit pulp for cyclopropene fatty acids

Fatty Acid

HSI300/3
/1
A

(mg/g)

HSI300/3/
1
B

(mg/g)

HSI300/3/
2
A

(mg/g)

HSI300/3
/2
B

(mg/g)

HSI300/3/
3
A

(mg/g)

HSI300/3/
3
B

(mg/g)

16:0 palmitic

0.63

0.67

1.21

1.15

0.90

0.89

16:1
hexadecenoic

0.02

0.01

0.02

0.01

0.02

0.02

17:0
heptadecenoic

0.01

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.02

0.02

16:3
hexadecatrieno
ic

0.03

0.03

0.03

0.03

malvalic

0.03

0.03

0.18

0.16

0.09

0.09

18:0 stearic

0.05

0.06

0.19

0.18

0.10

0.11

18:1 oleic

0.43

0.49

1.57

1.46

0.84

0.83

18:2 linoleic

0.28

0.34

1.01

0.95

0.67

0.67

sterculic

0.01

0.01

0.08

0.08

0.02

0.02

18:3 a-
linolenic

0.51

0.47

0.56

0.56

0.51

0.52

20:0 icosanoic

0.02

0.02

0.05

0.05

0.04

0.05

22:0

0.03

0.03

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.02

Total Fatty
Acids

2.02

2.14

4.94

4.70

3.30

3.27

 

NOTE: The fatty acids in bold are CPFA’s

The above table lists the results of the fatty acid analysis of samples from the three different batches of baobab dried fruit pulp. The levels of cyclopropene fatty acids vary between the three samples, with HSI300/3/2 showing the highest levels of malvalic acid (average 0.17 mg/g) and sterculic acid (average 0.08 mg/g).

The UK government recommends that the average person consumes no more than 35% fat in their diet (www.bbc.co.uk/health). This equates to 76g of fat for women and 100g of fat for men. The in vivo rat experiments (Bezard et al 1993a, Gaydou et al 1995, and Bezard et al 1996) consumed a diet of 10% fat made from baobab seed oil (13.7% cyclopropene fatty acids). Therefore, from these rat experiments we would expect to see the same effects when humans consumed a theoretical extrapolated value of around 10.4-13.7g of cyclopropene fatty acids.

PhytoTrade plan to use only 6-10g of baobab dried fruit pulp in a smoothie or 10-15g in a fruit bar. Assuming that the equivalent of 15g of baobab fruit pulp is consumed in one meal, this would equate to around a consumption of only 3.75 mg of cyclopropene fatty acids per meal from the analytical data outlined in table XIV above. As such, the amount of cyclopropene fatty acids in the baobab fruit pulp samples are over 3000 times below the level where toxic effects were observed in rats and are therefore unlikely to display toxic effects in humans when consumed at the anticipated intake levels.

 

8.5 LC50 brine shrimp assay

Tuani et al (1994) compared the activity of indigenous plants with a folkloric reputation for pesticidal activity and their LD50 values. Adansonia leaves and bark were extracted and these extracts were introduced to brine shrimp to determine their LC50 values.

Table XV
Effects of brine shrimp on different extracts of Baobab leaves and bark

Solvent extract

Plant Part

LC50 (ppm)

Adansonia ethanol extract

Leaves

110.9

Bark

40.6

Adansonia pet. ether extract

Leaves

>1000

Bark

 

8.6 Adansonin

Adansonin has been described as an alkaloid that has been reportedly isolated from Adansonia digitata. The bark of the Adansonia digitata tree is the only component that may contain the toxic alkaloid. Reference to this substance is not consistent, sometimes it is referred to as Adansonin and other times as Adansonine. However, in all cases the alkaloid is not listed in Beilstein or Chemical Abstracts from 1907 to 2005. The only formal reference to its existence is in the Merck index of chemicals and drugs: an encyclopedia for the chemist, pharmacist, and allied professions, 1952. There is a no supporting data on this particular alkaloid including what the structure of this molecule is or whether there are any therapeutic/toxic effects. However, another member of the Bombacaceae family of which Adansonia belongs, is known to contain the pyrrole based alkaloid, funebrine. This alkaloid was isolated from Quararibea fenebris vischer. It is unclear whether this group of alkaloids are would also be found in Boabab species. The issue is further confused by the work of Tuani et al (1994) who examined the bark and leaves of Adansonia whilst screening for bioactive phytochemicals. According to their results no alkaloids were detected, only flavonoids, general glycosides, and tannins.

Recent studies by PhytoTrade were undertaken to establish the potential presence of alkaloids in the dried fruit pulp of Adansonia digitata. Samples from batches HSI300/3/1, HSI300/3/2, and HSI300/3/3 were subjected to standard phytochemical methods for the detection of alkaloids using thin layer chromatography and visualization using Dragendorf’ s reagent (Wagner H. et al, Plant Drug analysis: a thin layer chromatography atlas, Springer Verlag, Berlin 1984. Harborne J.B. Phytochemical Methods: Chapman and Hall,1999). The results are detailed in appendix 19 but the results showed that no alkaloids were present in the “alkaloid rich fraction” at a detection limit of 5ug / 0.5g – 0.001% dry wt in any of the dried fruit samples. Considering the extensive history of use of the dried fruit pulp, if any alkaloids were present at lower levels of detection, they are probably unlikely to be a cause for concern.

 

Structure of Funebrine

8.7 Ochratoxin Content

Levels of Ochratoxin A in foodstuffs are regulated by EU Law under EC/123/2005, recently amended from EC/466/2001. Here, the permitted levels of this mycootoxin in food is given as 10 µg/kg for dried vine fruit. This includes currants, raisins, and sultanas. No other permitted levels could be found for other dried fruit products.

Table XVI
Analysis Data of Ochratoxin A – Content in PhytoTrade’s Baobab Dried Fruit Pulp Samples

Sample

Ochratoxin A (µg/kg)

H.S.I 300/3/1/A

<

0.1

H.S.I 300/3/1/B

<

0.1

H.S.I 300/3/2/A

<

0.1

H.S.I 300/3/2/B

<

0.1

H.S.I 300/3/3/A

<

0.1

H.S.I 300/3/3/B

<

0.1

 

Examination of the analytical data shows that Ochratoxin A levels in the baobab fruit pulp samples were < 0.1 µg/kg, and this is well below the EC safety standard. The full details are included in appendix 20.

No other mycotoxins, such as aflatoxin, were tested for in the PhytoTrade samples since these toxins are not generally expected to be found in dried fruit pulp.

 

8.8 Cyanide Content

Ghani and Abejule (1986) demonstrated that baobab fruit pulp contains small amounts of cyanide in the region of 0.0049%. Consequently, PhytoTrade’s product was analysed for cyanide content in different batches of the products:

Table XVII
Analysis results of cyanide content in PhytoTrade’s Baobab Dried Fruit Pulp samples

The results of the cyanide analysis of the PhytoTrade product, showed that all three samples did not contain cyanide at limit of detection for this particular analytical technique, i.e., less than 5mg/kg (see appendix 21 for more details and the methodology used). This equates to a figure of less than 0.00005%. A comparison with the figures of Ghani and Abejule (1986) of 0.0049% reveals that PhytoTrade’s product contains negligible, if any cyanide.

 

8.9 Toxicity of closely related species and the botanical family

A literature search was conducted on other closely related species to Baobab, the Bombacaceae family and the closely related Malvaceae family in which it has occasionally been placed. No apparent toxicity issues were highlighted within this family and in fact a number of species belonging to this family are known to be edible indicating at least, lack of any immediate toxicity. For example, the following species are known to be eaten in different parts of the World:

  • The fruits of the durian tree (Durio zibethinus , which are often referred to as the “King of Fruits” and are eaten all over South East Asia (Watson, L., and Dallwitz, M.J. (1992);
  • Malabar Chestnut Pachira aquatica, the seeds of the fruits taste like chestnuts and are ground up to make bread (Purdue 2005);
    • The fruits of Ceiba pentandra are widely used in traditional medicine in Asia and Africa (Kawanishi et al., 2002) and the seeds are edible after roasting (Duke 2005);
    • Bombax malabaricum is widely used throughout India as folk medicine mainly as a diuretic and aphrodisiac (Gunaseka et al., 2003);
      • Quararibea cordata known as “chupa-chupa” is an edible fruit found in Amazonia ( Purdue 2005)
      • The seeds of Eriodendron anfractuosum are eaten in India when roasted ( Purdue 2005).

The family as stated previously is also closely related to the Malvaceae family (Heywood 1993) which contains other economically important species such as various Hibiscus species (used as herbal and flower teas) and specifically Hibiscus esculentus (Okra) used as a common vegetable in cooking.

 

8.10 Conclusion

Summarising all of the above safety data on Adansonia fruit pulp, there is no evidence that consuming 6-10g of baobab fruit pulp in a smoothie or 10-15g in a fruit bar would have any harmful effects.

 

9.0 Allergenicity of Baobab dried fruit pulp

There is no publicised evidence in the literature for allergenic effects caused by direct consumption of Adansonia digitata fruit pulp. Indeed, a recent report by Lorenzoni­Chiesura et al (2000) recommended that species belonging to in the Malvaceae family as having the least or no allergenic potential. As further evidence to support this claim, the work of Marzatico et al (2001), demonstrated no dermatological toxicity or allergic reaction when fruit pulp solutions were exposed to humans using a modified Draize test.

PhytoTrades product is a non-genetically modified produced fruit in which the protein content is not new to the food chain. Also, there have been no reported allergic reactions with regard to this plant species despite extensive consumption particularly in both Africa and India. The genus and close families of the Baobab also have no reported allergenic effects. Also the closely related fruits of the Adansonia gregori a baobab tree found in Australia is commonly eaten by Aboriginals and the Food Standards Agency of Australia and New Zealand have declared this food to have a ‘limited history of safe use in indigenous communities with no safety concerns identified and no harmful substances identified’ (FSANZ Food Standards Code, pp 99, 5 October 2005).

Taking into account the above information and the extensive history of use of Baobab fruit pulp as outlined in section 6.0 it is unlikely that Adansonia digitata will provoke an allergenic response in individuals who consume this product.

 

10.0 Appendices

Appendix 1 Members of PhytoTrade Africa in the Baobab fruit pulp Pre- Qualified Supplier (PQS) Programme

Appendix 2 (Confidential) Sourcing and blending of Baobab Dried Fruit Pulp from PhytoTrade’s suppliers

Appendix 3 Analysis of P-sitosterol in Baobab Dried Fruit Pulp samples and

generation of a fingerprint by quantitative thin layer chromatography

Appendix 4 Specification Sheets for the different batches/regions of Baobab Dried Fruit Pulp

Appendix 5 Stability Data and Conclusions

Appendix 6 Anticipated Intake – Leatherhead supporting information

Appendix 7a Toxicity and use questionnaire of Baobab fruit

Appendix 7a Edited questionnaire on history and safe use of Baobab fruit

Appendix 7b History of Use – PhytoTrade Literature search Appendix 8 PhytoTrade Safety and Toxicity Literature Searches

Appendix 9 Determination of Vitamin C content in Baobab Dried Fruit Pulp by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography

Appendix 10 Determination of Pectin Content in Baobab Dried Fruit Pulp by Colourimetric Assay

Appendix 11 Determination of Fatty Acids in Baobab Dried Fruit Pulp by Gas Chromatography

Appendix 12 Determination of the Nutritional Composition of Baobab Dried Fruit Pulp

-Moisture Content -Protein Content -Total Fat Content -Ash Content

-Dietary Fibre Content -Energy

-Sugar Content

-Sodium Content -Fatty Acid Content -Vitamin B Content

Appendix 13 Determination of Trace Elements in Baobab Dried Fruit Pulp by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy

Appendix 14 Determination of Heavy Metals content in Baobab Dried Fruit Pulp

Appendix 15 Determination of Amino Acid Content in Baobab Dried Fruit Pulp

Appendix 16 Determination of the Microbiological Contamination of Baobab Dried Fruit Pulp

Appendix 17 Determination of Pesticides Residues in Baobab Dried Fruit Pulp

Appendix 18 Determination of Cyclopropene Fatty Acid Content in Baobab Dried Fruit Pulp by Gas Chromatography

Appendix 19 Determination of Alkaloid Content in Baobab Dried Fruit Pulp

Appendix 20 Determination of Ochratoxin A in Baobab Dried Fruit Pulp by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography

Appendix 21 Determination of the Cyanide Content in Baobab Dried Fruit Pulp

 

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