[Total : 2    Moyenne : 2.5/5]

In the last few years many natural ingredients, especially from the Amazon, have been touted for their antioxidant and cosmeceutical properties. An African natural—Baobab—also has a tremendous amount to offer the skin.

Baobab is an exotic natural that tightens and tones the skin, moisturizes and encourages skin cell regeneration. Baobab trees (Adansonia digitata) are special and distinctive features of the African savanna. The trees can live for up to 1,000 years and are some of the largest in the world. The tree survives prolonged droughts by storing up to 30,000 gallons of water in its massive, fibrous, sponge-like trunk, which can be up to 30 to 60 feet in diameter. To access this water, the Kalahari bushmen use hollow pieces of grass (much like a straw) to suck the water out. Hollowed out baobab trunks in the vicinity of villages are used for water storage. Thus, the Baobab tree is also known as the “Tree of Life”.

The Baobab Fruit … An African Treasure for Skin

The Baobab Fruit … An African Treasure for Skin

Information about the Baobab

The Baobab tree has also been called “the upside-down tree” because its weirdly shaped branches resemble roots. The fruit of the African baobab tree is particularly appealing to baboons, hence its other nickname, “monkey-bread tree”. Although the tree is not native to Egypt, the fruit was known in the herb and spice markets of Cairo as early as 2500 B.C. It was made famous in the West by Antoine de Saint-Exupéry’s French fable “The Little Prince.”2 The baobab was approved for European markets in 2008, and FDA soon followed suit. The fruit’s dry pulp is now sold as an ingredient for smoothies and cereal bars.3

The tree’s white, powdery fruit is classed as a functional food, rich in specific nutrients and phyto-chemicals, and are promoted as being able to improve health condition and/or disease prevention. The fruit is bottle or cucumber shaped and has a woody outer shell covered by velvety yellowish, sometimes greenish hairs. The fruit pulp is split into mealy agglomerates that enclose several seeds. The Baobab tree is a vital food source for many local tribes, cattle and game; the fruit contains both pulp and seeds which are eaten. The pulp can also be mixed with water and made into a drink; the seeds of the baobab tree can be eaten alone or mixed with millet and seedlings and young leaves are eaten like asparagus or are used in salads.

Its benefits on our skin

The Baobab fruit has six times as much vitamin C as an orange, 50 percent more calcium than spinach and is a plentiful source of antioxidants. Its antioxidant activity is four times that of a kiwi or apple pulp. The leaves are an excellent source of vitamin A, calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum and phosphorus, and the seeds are packed with protein. 4 Vitamins A and B1, B2, B3, B6 and dietary fibers are also present in Baobob.5 Baobab oil is a clear, golden yellow oil that with a slight nutty odor. The oil is obtained by cold pressing or Co2 extraction of the dried baobab seeds. Baobab oil contains fatty acids (omega 3-6-9), sterols, proteins, potassium, magnesium calcium, iron, zinc and amino acids. Topical application of this nourishing, antioxidant oil can help alleviate chronic dry skin and chronic bruising by improving skin elasticity and boosting epidermal softening.

Recent studies in Europe have revealed a multitude of skin benefits of Baobab. Leaf and bark extracts tighten and tone skin, while oil from the seeds moisturizes and encourages skin cell regeneration with vitamins A, D and E.6 Studies carried out in the laboratory showed doses between 400 and 800 mg/kg determine a marked anti-inflammatory effect and are able to reduce inflammation induced in the animal limb with formalin. This activity may be attributed to the presence of sterols, saponins and triterpenes in the aqueous extract. Clinically, skin care companies have found Baobab fruit and oil combats skin aging, helps improve skin firmness and strength by boosting the elastic quality of the skin, diminishes the look of facial lines, evens out skin tone, and refreshes and hydrates the skin.

Baobab has already been incorporated into several well-known skin care lines and has also been used in several French hair treatment gels and lip balms. Thus we can see that while Baobab has been discovered by some skin care companies, many more have yet to be introduced to its wonderful properties.


[Total : 1    Moyenne : 5/5]

The baobab tree was in the past perhaps best associated with tales of mystery and spirits– even evils ones– but rarely its intrinsic value.Many families, especially those from the central regions where the tree is common, did not view the baobab positively owing to lack of correct information, or the sheer impact of rumours peddled throughout history.

“It is a home for the Satan and spirits,” many children grew to believe, as that is how the tree was best described countrywide. However, the tree is not big-for-nothing. It has huge health benefits. Its fruit has tremendous values that have come to be appreciated as demonstrated recently at a food exhibition in Dar es Salaam.

New study shows positive attributes of baobab fruit

New study shows positive attributes of baobab fruit

Even in some traditional settings, the baobab has been recognized for its beneficial health and nutritional properties. One group called Mildor, which is based in the city and has 10 members, is doing the best it could to earn income by selling products made from the baobab fruits, while at the same time enhancing the health of its customers.

The group, established early this year, is making and selling baobab by- products from the seeds.
It was through training by the Small Industries Development Organisation (SIDO) that the group got the knowledge of making such products. Christine Masasa, a member of Mildor, says the baobab has many health benefits. “The oil and the powder have plenty of nutritional and medicinal properties,” she says.

Nutritious powder

Packed in a colourless nylon paper, the baobab powder looks pale in colour and has a unique tangy taste, which is described as “caramel pear with subtle tones of grapefruit”. The powder forms naturally inside the hard-shelled fruit of the tree.
According to Christine, the powder makes a tasty beverage, after soaking in water or milk.
She says the powder has amazingly high nutritional contents. It has more vitamin C than oranges, and more calcium than milk.

The fruit powder is also said to be rich with antioxidant elements, more than double the figures reported for pomegranates and cranberries, and more than three times the reported figure for blueberries.
It contains more potassium than apricots, bananas, peaches and apples, and also has magnesium content above that of bananas, apricots, peaches and apples.

The powder has higher antioxidant levels compared to other fruits including apples, apricots, bananas and peaches. It contains more iron than spinach and apples, in addition to containing higher levels of dietary fibre than most fruits including apples, peaches, apricots and bananas.

Pectin is one source of fibre in baobab and has been reported to have a role in reduction of total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, which might cause blockage of blood vessels.
In other countries in Africa and Europe baobab products, such as jams, teas, nutrition bars and powder ingredient mixes are already available.

Baobab leaves can be used as a dish and can heal stomach ulcers, typhoid, and an instant energy booster.

Golden oil

Mildor also extracts oil by cold-pressing the seeds of baobab. The semi-fluid golden coloured oil has a gentle scent and is rich in Vitamin A, B, C, D and F, and can be used as medicine for treatment of several diseases.
Christine says it is supposed to be taken two teaspoonfuls daily, and is said to increase body cells, body CD4, and build a healthy liver and kidney.

It also helps to remove cholesterol, body poison and reduce body weight. Welu Shagile, 65, is one of the users of the oil and she says it has helped her recover from weight problems. “I used the oil for two months and I have lost 15 kilogrammes. I was suffering from excessive tiredness and now I am fit to walk around and take care of myself,” she says.

Beauty

The edible oil can also be applied to the skin for beauty purposes. “This oil is perfect for people with albinism, since it protects skin damage by the sun,” Christine says.
The group does not throw away any thing that come from the seeds. The residue that remains after processing oil is mixed with coconut oil and used for making soap. According to Christine, the soap helps fight skin diseases, such as acne, sunburn, eczema and rashes.

Food security

Christine and her group collect the baobab seeds from Morogoro, Dodoma and Ruaha. She says the natives still maintain myths towards these trees.
“The villagers stare at us the way we keep collecting the seeds. We try to educate them that they are beneficial foods and should be gathered for large scale consumption,” she says.

The group educates the villagers on how to take care of the tree and eradicate the myths around it.
“They say that there are large snakes in the baobab trees, so they can’t collect the fruits,” she says.

A study conducted in 2000 by Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA), department of forestry, titled “Potentials of Non Wood Forest Products in Household Food Security in Tanzania” revealed that non-wood forest products (baobab included) are of vital importance as tools for coping with food shortage and famines.

 


[Total : 0    Moyenne : 0/5]

If you want to learn more about the Baobab, Adansonia digitata Bombacaceae, take a look at the descriptions below.

You’ll know everything about its local names, notanic description, biology, ecology, biophysical limits, documented species distribution, products, services, tree management, germplasm management, or pests and diseases.

Local names

  • Afrikaans (kremetart,kremetartboom);
  • Arabic (hamaraya,hamao,gungole (fruit),humier (fruit),teidoum,tabaldi,tebeldi);
  • Bemba (mubuyu);
  • Creole (mapou zombi);
  • English (upside-down tree,baobab,guinea tamarind,monkey bread tree,lemonade tree,cream-of-tartar tree,sour gourd);
  • French (pain de singe, baobab, calebassier,arbre aux calabasses,mapou zombi,mapou etranger);
  • Fula (boki,bokchi);
  • German (Affenbrotbaum);
  • Hausa (kuka);
  • Hindi (gorakh-imli,gorak lichora,gorak amla,gorak ali,gorakh-cinch,kapla-vriksha,khura-sani-imli);
  • Lozi (mubuyu,muyu);
  • Mandinka (sito,sira);
  • Nyanja (mbuyu,mkulukumba,mlambe);
  • Sinhala (aliha gaha); Somali (yak);
  • Swahili (mbuyu);
  • Tamil (paparapulia,anaipuli,anaipuliya-maram,perruka);
  • Tigrigna (kommer,hermer banba,momret,duma);
  • Tongan (mubuyu); Tswana (mowana);
  • Wolof (bui,buee,goui,gui,gwi);
  • Zulu (isiMuku,isiMuhu,umShimulu)

Botanic description

Adansonia digitata is a large, round canopied tree with a swollen trunk, about 10-25 m in height, often with a bole of 3-10 m (giant individuals attain a girth of up to 28 m); bark is soft, smooth, fibrous, reddish-brown, greyish-brown or purplish-grey; bark of leaf-bearing branches is normally ashy on the last node; a green layer below the outer, waxy layer of the bark, presumably to assist in photosynthesis when the tree has shed its leaves.

  • The thick, fibrous bark is remarkably fire resistant, and even if the interior is completely burnt out, the tree continues to live. Regrowth after fire results in a thickened, uneven integument that gives the tree its gnarled appearance resembling an elephant’s skin but that serves as added protection against fire. Mature thick and extensive lateral roots anchor the tree on the ground and end in clusters of potatolike tubers; the thick, strong, prominent taproot at 6 months is 3 times the length of the seedling; roots grow fast but never penetrate far beyond a depth of 2 m, which explains why in old age they are often found toppled when the branches increase in weight.
  • Leaves alternate, digitately 3- to 9-foliate; leaflets oblong to ovate, 5-15 x 3-7 cm, lower leaflets being the smallest and terminal leaflet the largest; leaflets dark green, with short, soft hairs; lateral veins looping; apex and base tapering; margin entire; petiolules absent or almost so; petiole up to 12 cm long.
  • Flowers a waxy white, up to 20 cm in diameter, axillary, solitary, pendulous, bisexual; all floral parts in 5s; calyx deeply lobed, with white, silky hairs inside; large, crinkly, spreading petals; many stamens on a large central column that is shed with the petals; ovary superior, 5-10 chambered; petals bruise easily and become brown; flowers have an unpleasant scent.
  • Fruit ovoid, 12 cm or more in length, with a hard, woody shell, covered with yellowish-grey velvety hairs, indehiscent; seeds smooth, embedded in a whitish powdery pulp, have little or no endosperm.
  • The name commemorates the French botanist Michel Adanson (1727- 1806), who lived in Senegal for 6 years and wrote a work on that country’s natural history. Linneaus dedicated the genus and species to him; ‘digitata’ means hand shaped, referring to the shape of the leaf.

Biology

Mostly bats (Ephormorphus wahlbergii and Rousettus aegyptiacus) pollinate the flowers. The flowers emit what some describe as a strong carrion smell, which is presumably attractive to the bats; it is also known to attract the bluebottle fly (Chrysomyia marginalis) and at least 3 nocturnal moths: American bollworm (Heliothis armigera), red bollworm (Diparopsis castanea) and spring bollworm (Earias biplaga). In East Africa, the bush baby (Galago crassicaudatus) feeds nocturnally on the flowers, thus aiding in pollination. In southern Africa the tree flowers from October to December and fruits from April to May.

Ecology

The tree is characteristic of thorn woodlands of the African savannahs, which are characterized by low altitudes with 4-10 dry months a year split into 1 or 2 periods. A. digitata is resistant to fire, termite and drought, and prefers a high watertable. It occurs as isolated individuals or grouped in clumps irrespective of soil type. It is not found in areas of deep sand, presumably because it is unable to obtain sufficient anchorage and moisture. A. digitata is very sensitive to waterlogging and frost. All A. digitata locations can be described as arid and semi-arid, with not more than a day frost per year.

Biophysical limits

Altitude: 0-1500 m, Mean annual rainfall: (100)250-1 000(1500) mm.
Soil type: Shows a preference for well-drained soils that are acidic

Documented species distribution

Native:
Exotic: Angola, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Central African Republic, Cuba, Democratic Republic of Congo, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Egypt, Gabon, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guyana, Haiti, India, Indonesia, Jamaica, Malaysia, Martinique, Mauritius, Montserrat, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Sao Tome et Principe, St Kitts and Nevis, St Lucia, St Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, US, Virgin Islands (US)

The map above shows countries where the species have been planted. It does neither suggest that the species can be planted in every ecological zone within that country, nor that the species can not be planted in other countries than those depicted. Since some tree species are invasive, you need to follow biosafety procedures that apply to your planting site.

Baobab Adansonia digitata Bombacaceae

Map Baobab Adansonia digitata Bombacaceae

Products

  • Food: An edible white, powdery pulp found in the fruit is very rich in vitamin C and B2 and makes a refreshing drink. Ripe fruits are collected and cracked to remove the ‘flour’, which is mixed with milk to prepare a flavoured fermented porridge. Young leaves are also rich in Vitamin C, contain uronic acids, and are high in demand in West Africa as a soup vegetable. In Ferlo, North Senegal, an extract of the leaves, called ‘lalo’, is used to give couscous (millet porridge) a smooth consistency. The leaves also form an excellent condiment and seasoning.
    The small stem and roots of the seedlings are eaten as vegetable; mature, thick roots are cooked and eaten during famine. A root decoction is widely used in Sierra Leone as food. It is prepared by boiling, roasting, soaking or fermenting the roots, and tastes like almonds. Having a high water content, the wood is chewed by humans and animals in case of extreme water scarcity. The wood can be used as a salt substitute. The acid pith is used as a substitute for cream of tartar in baking, to curdle milk and smoke fish. It is also roasted and used as a coffee substitute. The seeds contain appreciable quantities of tartaric acid and potassium bitar; they are refreshing to suck, and when soaked in water make a palatable drink.
  • Fodder: Young leaves, fruit, pods and seeds provide fodder for game and domestic animals. During drought, donkeys and game animals chew both the bark and fibrous wood for sap. Livestock and game often destroy young trees.
  • Apiculture: The tree is a source of fine quality honey. Wild bees manage to perforate the soft wood and lodge their honey in the holes. In many parts of Africa, the hollow trunks are used for beekeeping.
  • Fuel: The long-fibred wood is suitable for firewood. The shell and seeds are also used for fuel, which potters use to smooth earthenware necklaces before firing.
  • Fibre: The bark from the lower part of the stem of younger trees and of the roots can be removed to produce a valuable fibre. If managed properly the trees are not seriously damaged, and even after repeated use the bark regenerates and can be stripped again some years later. It is used to make excellent cordage, ropes, harness straps, mats, snares and fishing lines, fibre cloth, musical instrument strings tethers, bed-springs and bow strings. In both Senegal and Ethiopia, the fibres are woven into waterproof hats that may also serve as drinking vessels. The fibre is the best for making the famous ‘kiondo’ baskets of Kenya. Strong, tough and tear-resistant paper is produced from the fibre. It is commercially exploited in India for currency notes.
  • Timber: The wood is whitish, spongy and light (air-dried 320 kg/cubic m). It is used for making canoes, rafts, insulating boards, wooden platters and trays, boxes and floats for fishing nets.
  • Gum or resin: Glue can be made by mixing flower pollen with water.
  • Tannin or dyestuff: The wood contains some tannins, and the acid pith is used to coagulate rubber. In East Africa, the roots produce a useful red dye.
  • Lipids: A non-drying, golden yellow oil of agreeable taste, which is used in gala occasions in Senegal, may be obtained by distilling the seeds. In Bicha and Mondo villages in Tanzania, A. digitata seeds are used as a substitute for cooking oil.
  • Alcohol: The Wasandawe of Tanzania use the liquid from the pulp for brewing beer, as do the Akamba people of Kenya, who use the seed pulp as fermenting agent in some local beer.
  • Poison: The bark is boiled for days to extract a substance poisonous to ants. Fruit pulp burns with an acrid, irritating smoke that can be used to deter insects troublesome to livestock.
  • Medicine: Hyposensitive and antihistamine properties are present in the leaves, which are used to treat kidney and bladder diseases, asthma, general fatigue, diarrhoea, insect bites, and guinea worm. Leaf and flower infusions are valued for respiratory problems, digestive disorders and eye inflammation. The seed paste is used for curing tooth and gum diseases. The fruit pulp, seed and bark are reputedly an antidote to Strophanthus poisoning. Gum from the bark is used for cleansing sores. It is also used as an expectorant and a diaphoretic. The bark is used in steam baths for calming shivering and high fever. A decoction of the roots is taken as a remedy for lassitude impotence and kwashiorkor. The bark is boiled and taken as a cure for body pains. This infusion is also used to treat colds, fever and influenza. Seeds are used to cure gastric, kidney and joint diseases; they are roasted then ground and the powder smeared on the affected part or drunk in water.
  • Other products: Ash from the shell, bark and seed, rich in potash, is widely used in making soap, prepared by boiling the bark and fruit ash in oil. The shell can be used as a dish, water dipper, vessel for liquids, snuffbox, fishing float; it also makes an excellent rat trap. The powdered husk or penducule may be smoked as a tobacco substitute or added to snuff to increase pungency. The pulp extract can be used as a hair wash.

Services

Soil improver: Decaying wood of a tree that has died of old age or from lightning is spread on fields as a fertilizer. Ashes from the shell, bark and seed are rich in potash and are useful as a fertilizer.

Ornamental: A. digitata is a popular species for bonsai specimens. The South African ‘Baobab Style’ originated with A. digitata.

Other services: In dry regions, A. digitata plays a vital role in water storage; a hollowed trunk may be carved out in 3-4 days. A medium-sized tree may hold 400 gallons while a large tree could contain over 2000 gallons, and water stored in them is said to remain sweet for several years if the hollow is kept well closed.
In East Africa the trunks are hollowed out to provide shelter and storage, and in West Africa the hollowed trunks are sometimes used as tombs.

Tree management

Once established, the seedlings grow well, becoming 2 m tall in 2 years, and 7 m tall in 10 years. The tree then grows slowly but lives long; under favourable conditions some A. digitata may live for more than 1000 years. There is a prehistoric drawing of an A. digitata tree at the National Museums of Kenya. The trunk may even shrink during periods of severe drought. A. digitata may be pollarded or lopped to encourage abundance of leaves.

Germplasm management

Seeds are probably orthodox; no loss in viability during 1 year of hermetic storage at 4 deg. C; viability can be maintained for several years in hermetic storage at 3 deg. C with 8-11 % mc. There are normally 2000-3000 seeds/kg.

Pests and diseases

The tree is very much liked by elephants, which cut the storage tissue of the bole and can damage or even destroy a tree.
Insects include cotton bollworms (Diparopsis castanea, Earias biplaga and Heliothis armigera), cotton stainer bugs (Dysercus fasciatus, D. intermedius, D. nigrofasciatus, D. suberstitious, Odontopus exsanguinis, O. sexpunctatus and Oxycarenus albipennis), and flea beetles (Podagrica spp.). Pollarding was formerly practised in the Sudan to control cotton stainers, but was also found to stop the fruiting for at least 2 years. In Ghana an unidentified black beetle is reported to damage and eventually destroy branches by girdling. Also from West Africa there is a report that a long¬horn beetle, Aneleptes trifascicata, attacks and kills young trees by girdling the stem. In the Transvaal, the masonga caterpillar or mopane worm, Gonimbrasia herlina, is said to feed on the leaves.
A. digitata is also host to members of the Pseudococcoidae family, the mealy bugs, which act as the vectors for various virus diseases of cocoa in West Africa, as well as the cocoa capsid, Distantiella theobroma.
The sooty baobab syndrome is an episodic, drought-induced phenomenon related to climatic changes, made worse in recent times by human interference that limits local availability of soil moisture. Affected trees, which appear dead or dying exhibit a striking, blackened or burnt appearance, hence the colloquial term ‘sooty baobabs’.

Further reading

Abbas B, El-Tayeb AE, Sulleiman YR. 1992. Calotropis procera: feed potential for arid zones. Veterinary-Record. 131(6):132.
Albrecht J. ed. 1993. Tree seed hand book of Kenya. GTZ Forestry Seed Center Muguga, Nairobi, Kenya. Anon. 1986. The useful plants of India. Publications & Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi, India.
Arum G. 1989. Baobab. Adansonia digitata. Indigenous Tree Training Series: Norwegian Agency for International Development (NORAD). KENGO.
Becker B.1983. The contribution of wild plants to human nutrition in the Ferlo (north Senegal). Agroforestry Systems. 1:257-267.
Beentje HJ. 1994. Kenya trees, shrubs and lianas. National Museums of Kenya.
Bein E. 1996. Useful trees and shrubs in Eritrea. Regional Soil Conservation Unit (RSCU), Nairobi, Kenya.
Bekele-Tesemma A, Birnie A, Tengnas B. 1993. Useful trees and shrubs for Ethiopia. Regional Soil Conservation Unit (RSCU), Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA).
Birnie A. 1997. What tree is that? A beginner’s guide to 40 trees in Kenya. Jacaranda designs Ltd.
Bonkougou EG, Djimde M, Ayuk ET, Zougrana I, Tchoundjeu Z. 1999. The market potential of parkland trees: Agroforestry Today. 11(1-2):13-15.
Coates-Palgrave K. 1988. Trees of southern Africa. C.S. Struik Publishers Cape Town.
Dale IR, Greenway PJ. 1961. Kenya trees and shrubs. Buchanan’s Kenya Estates Ltd.
Hines DA, Eckman K. 1993. Indigenous multipurpose trees for Tanzania: uses and economic benefits to the people. Cultural survival Canada and Development Services Foundation of Tanzania.
Hong TD, Linington S, Ellis RH. 1996. Seed storage behaviour: a compendium. Handbooks for Genebanks: No. 4. IPGRI.
ICRAF. 1992. A selection of useful trees and shrubs for Kenya: Notes on their identification, propagation and management for use by farming and pastoral communities. ICRAF.
Lanzara P. and Pizzetti M. 1978. Simon & Schuster’s Guide to Trees. New York: Simon and Schuster
Mbuya LP et al. 1994. Useful trees and shrubs for Tanzania: Identification, Propagation and Management for Agricultural and Pastoral Communities. Regional Soil Conservation Unit (RSCU), Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA).
Nkana ZG, Iddi S. 1991. Utilization of Baobab (Adansonia digitata) in Konda district, Central Tanzania. Sokoine University, Tanzania.
Noad T, Birnie A. 1989. Trees of Kenya. General Printers, Nairobi.
Palmer E, Pitman N. 1972. Trees of Southern Africa Vol. 2. A.A. BalKema Cape Town.
Piearce GD et al. 1994. Sooty baobabs – disease or drought? Forestry Commission Zimbabwe. Sahni KC. 1968. Important trees of the northern Sudan. United Nations and FAO.
Saka JDK, Rapp I, Akinnifesi FK, Ndolo V, Mhango J. 2007. A comparative study of the physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics of Uapaca kirkiana, Strychnos cocculoides, Adansonia digitata and Mangifera indica fruit products: International Journal of Food Science and Technology. 42:836-841.
Sakai KI, Rumbino A, Iyama S & Gadrinab LU. 1987. Studies on the interference among trees in a plantations of Altingia excelsa. Biotropica. 1: 26-40.
Sidibe M, Williams JT. 2002. Baobab, Adansonia digitata L. Southampton, UK: International Centre for Underutilised Crops. 96p.
Storrs AEG. 1995. Know your trees: some common trees found in Zambia. Regional Soil Conservation Unit (RSCU). Szolnoki TW. 1985. Food and fruit trees of Gambia. Hamburg. Federal Republic of Germany.
Tietema T, Merkesdal E and Schroten J. 1992. Seed germination of indigenous trees in Botswana. Acts Press.
Traore F. 1998. Use of woody and non-woody products for the preparation of foods in Konodimini in Segou region. Bamako, Mali: University of Mali. 42p.
Venter F, Venter J-A. 1996. Making the most of Indigenous trees. Briza Publications.
Vogt K. 1995. A field guide to the identification, propagation and uses of common trees and shrubs of dryland Sudan. SOS Sahel International (UK).
W ickens GE. 1982. The baobab – Africa’s upside-down tree. Kew Bulletin. 37(2).
Williams R.O & OBE. 1949. The useful and ornamental plants in Zanzibar and Pemba. Zanzibar Protectorate.
SUGGESTED CITATION
Orwa C, Mutua A , Kindt R , Jamnadass R, Simons A. 2009. Agroforestree Database:a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0 (http://www.worldagroforestry.org/af/treedb/)